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petroleum water injection
Engineering and Construction
Pages 5 (1255 words)
Name University Course Instructor Date Petroleum water injection A petroleum reservoir also known as oil or gas reservoir is an excavation of hydrocarbons located beneath the earth’s surface. This surface is usually of porous rocks. The formation is as a result of organic material decomposition over a long duration of time.
For the formation of this petroleum reservoir worth producing various geological elements are required. These elements include; porous reservoir rock which stores the petroleum, organic rocks which are the source of generating the gas or oil and lastly some kind of traps to prevent leaking away of the oil and gas (Souza at el). Usually these traps are found in predictable areas like next to faults, top of anticlines and under sandstone beds. The traps are of three types; structural, hydrodynamic and stratigraphic traps. Hydrodynamic traps are not common types of trap. They usually caused by water pressure differences that are as a result of water flow which creates a tilt of hydrocarbon water contact. Structural traps are bents and deformed areas beneath the surface that hold oil and gas. Mostly the traps are simple domes or more complicated faults. A fluid, which is water, oil or gas, fills the pores. Gas move to the top as it is the lightest, followed by oil then water stays down. Stratigraphic traps are depositional in nature as they are formed frequently by porous sandstone body or limestone getting enclosed in shale. The oil and gas are kept from getting away by the shale. Petroleum reservoirs are generally located beneath the surface at 1000 to 30000 feet. They vary in size, type and age. ...
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