History of the Golden Temple The Golden Temple, also known as Harmandir Sahib which stands for the Temple of God, is regarded as one of the holiest places in the world and the holiest shrine in Sikhism. It is situated in Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is located at 31.620045° N, 74.876397° E. Amritsar means ‘Pool of Nectar of Immorality’; this was from a tank that was excavated by the fourth guru of Sikhism in 1577 CE who was later called Amritsar, thus, the name of the city which grew around it (Pletcher, 129). In the process, Harmandir Sahib, an impressive house meant to be the abode of God, grew at the centre of this tank becoming a supreme venue of Sikhism. Civilization during the construction of the Golden Temple This structure was erected in the late 16th century under the governance of the forth and fifth gurus. It was constructed under very strict supervision of the authority that had very great influence on the public works at the time. Construction of the Harmandir Sahib The construction of the Golden Temple started in 1574 at a site surrounded by a small lake in some thin forest; the land was donated by the Mughal emperor Akbar, the third of the six Mughals, who was so impressed with the lifestyle in the town that as a result gave a parcel of land and revenues of quite a number of villages in the area. Guru Ram Das expanded the lake and constructed a small town surrounding it which he later named after Guru Ram Das as Guru Ka Chak. Between 1581 and 1606, the construction of the full-fledged gurdwara (temple) was done under the leadership of the fifth guru, Guru Arjan Dev (Brockman, 189). The initiation of the construction of the temple was done by Hazrat Mian Mir who laid the first foundation stone in December 1588 CE. Construction was complete by 1601 but refurbishment and decoration continued over the years up to about 1604. Installation of the Guru Granth Sahib was done in the 1660s. In the middle of the eighteenth century, the temple was attacked by some Afghans who were later killed by the Sikh army. The temple had to be reconstructed in the year 1760. Size of the Golden Temple The 40.5 square feet temple was constructed on a 67 feet square platform which is centrally located at the Sarovar tank. It has four doors in the four directions; to the East, West, South and North. It has an arch which located at the shore end of the causeway with door frames measuring eight feet, six inches in breadth by ten feet high. It has artistic decorations at the door panes which open to the bridge and walkway leading to the main structure of the Temple. The bridge is with a circumambulatory path which is thirteen feet wide. This path that leads to Har ki Paure, the steps of God, runs round the main place of pilgrimage. The main building of the Sri Harmandir Sahib, a three storied structure, is 202 feet in length and 21 feet in width. Whole of this structure is technically functional. The first floor has its roof at a height of 26 feet and 9 inches with a front decorated with repetition of cusped arches. The Temple has a four feet parapet rising all round the sides with four Mamtees at all the four corners. The third storey rises exactly on top of the central of the main sanctuary. This small square room with three gates holds a regular recitation of Guru Granth Sahib. A low fluted Gumbaz which has a lotus petal motif in relief at the base and an inverted lotus at the top supporting the Kalash is held up on top of this room.