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Introduction Gold is a dense element having a shiny, soft and malleable surface. Its chemical symbol is Au which comes from a Latin word Aurum. It has an atomic number of 79. Gold is among the non-reactive metal, thus, it many functional uses in manufacturing industries and natural environments. It has rust resistance i.e. does not react with oxygen. It is a good conductor of electricity being able to convey a very tiny electrical current in temperature ranging from -550 to +2000. 1 This metal is among the most ductile metals, thus, it allows to be molded into very small threads or wires without breaking. Furthermore, gold is malleable. This makes it possible to be shaped into extraordinary thin sheets. It is known to be the least absorptive material, but most reflective of infrared energy. Gold with a high purity has the capability of reflecting 99 percent of infrared rays. Also, gold is among the best heat conductors or thermal energy. This makes it to be used to transfer heat away from very delicate instruments, like electronics. Gold alloys, being the most tenacious and long performing material that is used to guard electronics against high temperatures produced by them. Place on earth where gold is mined include Australia, Alaska, Spain, South Africa (Witwatersrand) and other parts of Africa. South Africa remains one of the biggest gold producers in the world. Figure1. Sample image of gold in a pan taken from gold mine in Alaska. Its shinny and can be seen from a far distance in the pan. General properties Below table gives the major general properties of gold which are going to be discussed further and distinguished into chemical or physical classification. General properties of gold. Atomic Mass 196.9655 g.mol -1 Boiling Point 3129 K, 5173 °F, 2856 °C Standard potential +1,68 V ( Au+/ Au ) Ionic Radius 0.137 nm (+1) Vander Waal Radius 0.144 nm Density 19.3 at 20°C Electronic Shell [ Xe ] 4f14 5d10 6s1 History Discovered Middle eastern (Before 6000 BC) Table1. The common properties of gold material, It shows both physical and also the chemical properties of gold. Occurrence in Nature It occurs in its compound and also in native state (It’s Free State). 2 Gold is not combined with any other element in nature. Telluride (a compound of element Tellurium) is the most common compounds of gold. For example, gold telluride (AuTe 2) is mostly composed of mineral calavarite. Also, gold is found in Nuggets and chunks large enough to see. 3 This enables people to mine gold by picking and collecting it from the rivers and streams. Gold estimation abundance in the earth crust is around 0.005 Parts per Million. 3 This makes a very small fraction as compared to Iron and other metals. Many people believe that, about 70 million tons of gold are found in oceans. This has led to many ocean exploration of gold by many individuals and also some hold a belief that around 10 billion tons of gold are found at ocean bottoms. Howevwer, no one has ever found a means or a mining way to exploit that bottom gold. Researchers are working extremely hard to discover a way to exploit that bottom ocean gold, dissolved in seawater. Figure2. Pieces of gold attached to a chunk of quartz. Gold is found in Nu ...Show more


June 2, 2015 GOLD MATERIAL: EXTRACTION, STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES AND ITS IMPORTANT Abstract This paper gives a general overview of gold material, its physical and chemical structures and properties, the general process used in extraction of the mineral (gold) including the many types of gold we have…
Author : lavernebotsford
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