Mongols, began utilising composite bows around 1200AD, presenting improvements on the utilisation of composites. The Mongols combined wood, bone and animal glue to create a powerful weapon, which provided them with significant military dominance during these ancient times. The modern era of composites began with the development of plastics, which contributed significantly towards increased utilisation of composite materials. The utilisation of plastics began in nearly 1900s, replacing natural resins previously utilised in composites. These plastics, however, had the weakness of lacking sufficient strength for structural requirements (Kulshreshtha and Vasile 2002). Owens Corning remains credited with the introduction of fibre glass in 1935, which ultimately solved the problem of plastics lacking sufficient strength. This invention remains the notable beginning for Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) industry. During the Second World War, demand for alternate materials increased, as they became necessary in the manufacture of lightweight military aircrafts. During this period numerous advancements occurred regarding the production and application of fibre composites. Engineers discovered other advantages as these material remains transparent to radio frequencies utilised during wartime. Many fibreglass reinforced material became adopted in protecting electronic radar equipment. Following the end of the war inventors began making application for the fibreglass within other industries, other than aviation. Brandt Goldsworthy – grandfather of composites, developed numerous processes for manufacturing composites utilised in different industries. He remains accredited with development of the first fibreglass surfboard, which revolutionised surfing, and remains commonly utilised even today. This scientist invented pultrusion – the process utilised today in the manufacture of many fibreglass materials. The utilisation of composites could be identified as having begun maturing. During the 1970s, improvements were made; consequently producing better plastic resins (Seymour and Deanin 1987). Carbon fibre also developed during this period and has continued to replace metal as the material of choice. During the periods preceding these developments, metallic materials were highly utilised in the manufacture of many tools. Currently almost all manufactured tools have handles made from carbon fibre. As the composite industry continues to advance technologically, the 21st century has brought challenges focusing on renewable fibres and green environment. The 21st century concerns have changed the focus towards utilisation of environmentally friendly fibres based on ensuring sustainability on the industry (Johnson 2013). Under the current environmental concerns, inventions continue to occur utilising recyclable resins and bio-degradable fibres. Focus has been exclusively dedicated towards delivering environmentally friendly sustainable fibre sources. The concept of utilising composites in manufacturing various tools remains the same. Various universities and dedicated organisations continue to pursue research seeking to establish utilisation of fibres meeting the energy and environmental requirements of the 21st century. The current focus of composite development remains concerned with delivering environmentally friendly composite materials, and focuses on improving properties of
The United States Military Academy (1817), now called Norwich University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1825) were the first schools to offer education in engineering in the United States. All along, science and mathematics have been the basis for mechanical engineering education (Burstall 200).
Engineering design has both aesthetic and functional elements which can be split in to the categories of system and product design (Dym & Little, 1999). The engineering design process is a sequence of steps that a designer follows when creating a new design or solving a problem.
Making material choice remains an essential element for enhancing proper functioning of the structure, upon construction. The selection process for materials follows analysis of the functions for the proposed structure being constructed. The functions determine the required material strength among other properties; hence selection of material meeting structural requirements (Jones 1975).
We made our choice and ended up with the field of study we are interested in. It is easier to familiarize ourselves into something that we are eager to learn. However, our curriculum is divided into three areas. We have the minor, major, and elective subjects.
The cost of buying a text book for each unit that the student undertakes, keeping in mind that the student might have to tackle some may be fifteen units in every academic year is utterly unfriendly in terms of the costs to the students and their sponsors.
It is recognized as one of the largest, oldest and broadest disciplines of engineering. Mechanical engineers generally use the principles of materials, energy and mechanics in the design, and manufacture
Mechanical engineers utilize the knowledge of the thermal environment and forces under which products operate in designing them for aesthetics, functionality, and capacity to withstand this environment and forces. The work of mechanical engineers is crucial in the making of
They contain various operations such as coining, bending, rolling, drawing, pitch bending and roll forming among others
The film forming has a number of different procedures of forming that have been used. The production of a sheet
Automatic cooling system is basically the quantity of coolant which can be employed at different sides on the machine when the machine is under operation. Mainly, when the machine is under operation and the temperature increment beyond