Each of the disciplines is concerned about preserving the environment as they appreciate safeguarding the current resources as a way of guaranteeing future livelihood. Regarding this well publicised concern, this study will look at the particular aspects in the engineering and construction industry. This study seeks to focus on the sustainability of Olympics stadiums, particularly those used during the 2004 Athens and 2012 London Olympics. This dissertation will also explore the sustainability approaches in stadium building in terms of urban development and architecture as well as analyse the benefits of such construction. Comparing the London and Athens Olympic Stadiums, this paper will focus on the notions of flexibility in stadium design and post-event maintenance of stadiums for sustainable urban environment. Useful for professionals, the following investigation can be referred to as a guide to sustainable development of Olympic Stadiums. It also highlights specific requirements or concerns that are applicable in a particular region. The similarities and the differences between the stadiums will be taken into consideration in order to avoid mistakes and hopefully improve the sustainability methods in designing and building Olympic Stadiums. Finally, references to more detailed documents are provided so that interested readers can determine specific requirements that apply to a region of interest. Key words: Sustainability, Olympic games, Olympic Stadium, Urban development, Architectural development ACNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to gratefully acknowledge and thank Professor .........................., Dr for ........................................ Special thanks also ............................................................. CONTENTS ABSTRACT 2 ACNOWLEDGEMENTS 3 LIST OF FIGURES 6 LIST OF TABLES 8 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 8 1.1 BACKGROUND 9 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 9 1.3 METHODOLOGY 10 1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH 11 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 11 2.1 THE SPIRIT AND IDEALS OF OLYMPIC GAMES 12 2.2 PROMOTING THE MESSAGES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 13 2.3PHASES OF THE OLYMPIC STADIUMS DEVELOPMENT 15 2.3.1. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE 16 184.108.40.206 WASTE MANAGEMENT 17 220.127.116.11 SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS USAGE AND TRANSPORTATION 18 18.104.22.168 ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY 20 21 22.214.171.124. SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY 21 2.3.2. SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOST CITIES 31 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT 32 34 34 34 126.96.36.199. SOCIO - ECONOMICAL IMPACTS 35 188.8.131.52. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 37 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDY 39 CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF THE CASE STUDY AND DISCUSSION 40 4.1 DISCUSSION 41 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 43 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 45 REFERENCES 46 Anexx 1. PICTURES OF THE LONDON 2012 AND THE ATHENS 2004 OLYMPIC STADIUMS 54 Annex 2: USEFUL ACRONYMS 63 LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 Key different indicators between the London 2012 and Athens 2004 Olympic Stadium..................................................................................................................................41 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND The Olympics is perhaps one of the largest events that a city can hold. The scale of the event and the level of investment necessary to ensure its success is enough to reshape the economic growth of a city. Looking at the cities that have hosted this event in the past, it is evident that it can be a catalyst for urban development. The Olympics can spur development that
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INDIVIDUAL PROJECT: MAY 2012 TITLE: ‘SUSTAINABLE OLYMPIC STADIA: ATHENS 2004 AND LONDON 2012’ SUPERVISOR: COSTAS GEORGOPOULOS NAME: COURSE: BEng CIVIL ENGINEERING ABSTRACT The need to formulate and launch new approaches in building infrastructures that will guarantee the well being of the present and future generations has long been recognized…
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF OLYMPIC LEGACIES: PAST OLYMPIC GAMES AND LONDON 2012INTRODUCTION
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Comparing the London 2012 Olympics to other games such as the Beijing Olympics of 2008 and the Sydney Olympics of 2000 will enable to get a clear rating of the London 2012 Olympics. There were many things that London deed in order of sustaining its Olympics.
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