Each of the disciplines is concerned about preserving the environment as they appreciate safeguarding the current resources as a way of guaranteeing future livelihood. Regarding this well publicised concern, this study will look at the particular aspects in the engineering and construction industry. This study seeks to focus on the sustainability of Olympics stadiums, particularly those used during the 2004 Athens and 2012 London Olympics. This dissertation will also explore the sustainability approaches in stadium building in terms of urban development and architecture as well as analyse the benefits of such construction. Comparing the London and Athens Olympic Stadiums, this paper will focus on the notions of flexibility in stadium design and post-event maintenance of stadiums for sustainable urban environment. Useful for professionals, the following investigation can be referred to as a guide to sustainable development of Olympic Stadiums. It also highlights specific requirements or concerns that are applicable in a particular region. The similarities and the differences between the stadiums will be taken into consideration in order to avoid mistakes and hopefully improve the sustainability methods in designing and building Olympic Stadiums. Finally, references to more detailed documents are provided so that interested readers can determine specific requirements that apply to a region of interest. Key words: Sustainability, Olympic games, Olympic Stadium, Urban development, Architectural development ACNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to gratefully acknowledge and thank Professor .........................., Dr for ........................................ Special thanks also ............................................................. CONTENTS ABSTRACT 2 ACNOWLEDGEMENTS 3 LIST OF FIGURES 6 LIST OF TABLES 8 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 8 1.1 BACKGROUND 9 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 9 1.3 METHODOLOGY 10 1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH 11 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 11 2.1 THE SPIRIT AND IDEALS OF OLYMPIC GAMES 12 2.2 PROMOTING THE MESSAGES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 13 2.3PHASES OF THE OLYMPIC STADIUMS DEVELOPMENT 15 2.3.1. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE 16 18.104.22.168 WASTE MANAGEMENT 17 22.214.171.124 SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS USAGE AND TRANSPORTATION 18 126.96.36.199 ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY 20 21 188.8.131.52. SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY 21 2.3.2. SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOST CITIES 31 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT 32 34 34 34 184.108.40.206. SOCIO - ECONOMICAL IMPACTS 35 220.127.116.11. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 37 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDY 39 CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF THE CASE STUDY AND DISCUSSION 40 4.1 DISCUSSION 41 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 43 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 45 REFERENCES 46 Anexx 1. PICTURES OF THE LONDON 2012 AND THE ATHENS 2004 OLYMPIC STADIUMS 54 Annex 2: USEFUL ACRONYMS 63 LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 Key different indicators between the London 2012 and Athens 2004 Olympic Stadium..................................................................................................................................41 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND The Olympics is perhaps one of the largest events that a city can hold. The scale of the event and the level of investment necessary to ensure its success is enough to reshape the economic growth of a city. Looking at the cities that have hosted this event in the past, it is evident that it can be a catalyst for urban development. The Olympics can spur development that
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT: MAY 2012 TITLE: ‘SUSTAINABLE OLYMPIC STADIA: ATHENS 2004 AND LONDON 2012’ SUPERVISOR: COSTAS GEORGOPOULOS NAME: COURSE: BEng CIVIL ENGINEERING ABSTRACT The need to formulate and launch new approaches in building infrastructures that will guarantee the well being of the present and future generations has long been recognized…
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF OLYMPIC LEGACIES: PAST OLYMPIC GAMES AND LONDON 2012INTRODUCTION
Olympic Games have outreached the number of spectators who have become addicted to the particular event and look forward to it with all gusto. This over enthusiasm for the mega event has greatly influenced the host cities in the past and would also have a similar and far fervor impact in future as well because now interested cities and countries as host emphasize more on the legacies that such event could have on their citizens and urban regeneration as well.
The United Kingdom economy has been among the best performing economies in the world for a long time. During the period that lasted from 1990 to 2008, the U.K. economy comfortably managed a 2.3% GDP growth factor.
As a project manager, my key responsibilities in this project will include project scope management, time and cost management, quality management, human resource management, communication management, risk management and procurement management. Basic details of the London 2012 Olympics security measures and the potential IT security vulnerabilities of the event An assessment by the Olympic Strategic Threat Assessment (OSTA) indicates that the possible security threats to the Olympics are terrorism, serious crime, domestic extremism and natural hazards (Home Office 2012, 13).
But the London Olympic Stadium 2012 Programme was unique from the other programmes due to a unique characteristic. This stadium has been designed and constructed in such a way that it can be easily deconstructed after the games are over. It is the first of its kind in the world and has employed the skills and talent of the best architectural and engineering companies in the United Kingdom.
London won the battle for hosting Olympic games after a close competition with Paris. The 6th July , 2005 announcement about the selection of London as the host city of 2012 summer Olympic Games, lead to one of the biggest construction and regeneration initiatives in the world .
Therefore the objective of this brief report is thus to highlight all the current challenges and other issues that relate to the budget funding and the sourcing of the London Olympic Games in 2012.
The Customer Relationship Management is a strategy that supports the improvement of the relations between the organization and its customers, leading, gradually, to the increase of organizational profits. The elements of CRM are customized for each organization, in accordance with the organizational needs and characteristics.
Comparing the London 2012 Olympics to other games such as the Beijing Olympics of 2008 and the Sydney Olympics of 2000 will enable to get a clear rating of the London 2012 Olympics. There were many things that London deed in order of sustaining its Olympics.
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