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These byproducts have numerous uses. Some of the areas of application are foundry, palletizing, engineering construction and in agriculture. Bentonite can be used for watertight sealing due to its water absorption property. Bentonite rocks can be broadly classified into two categories. The first category is the group of rocks with high water absorption property. The absorbed water makes the rocks swell and be able to remain suspended in water for long. The second category is the group of rocks that absorbs water though they do not swell and remain suspended in water (Chegbeleh et al., 2008). Drying operation reduces the moisture content in bentonite rock to the required percentage. Different driers can be used in the moisture reduction. Drying effectively vaporizes the liquid level contain in the rocks. The vaporization is achieved through heat supply to the wet bentonite rock feedstock. The heat from the burner is supplied either through convention, radiation or conduction. The convection method is applied when direct driers are used while conduction method is applied when contact or indirect dryers are used. Most of the driers use hot air as the drying medium. This moisture removal process is energy-intensive operation since the amount of latent heat of vaporization required depends on the intensity of the heat (Gillson & Bances, 1960). Drying curve A representation curve is required so as to describe the various drying properties for different product at different specific temperature, pressure and velocity conditions. The drying curve for bentonite rock has three different phases. First phase This phase is also called initial period. In this phase, there is the transfer of heat from the dryer to the products and the contained moisture. Inlet condition from the dryer heats up the products and this condition further enable subsequent processes to occur. This phase can be substituted by pre-processing. Pre-processing is achieved through preheating the bentonite rock with energy from the waste material. Second phase This phase is also called the constant rate period. In this phase, free moisture attaches themselves on the surfaces. Alteration of the rate of evaporation reduces the moisture content. In this period, high drying rates are achieved through an increase in the temperature of the inlet air. This phase accords the product with very little temperature increase. Third phase This phase is also known as the falling rate period. Intrinsically attached moisture evaporates from the product. The product drying rate is limited by the outer surface. Moisture content The drying process employed is control of the moisture content of the bentonite rock. The dryer in this case is required to reduce the moisture content from 11% to 4%. The exact moisture content required is measured by the electrical resistance meter. However, this meter is limited to moisture content in grains, woods, food and concrete. Dielectric moisture meter works on the basis of contact surface with an electrode plate. The electrode plate cannot penetrate the wood. The preferred meters are the modern balances that incorporate infrared heaters. The infrared heaters directly measure the product moisture content. These heaters have the capacity of giving moisture content profile variations. Rotary dryers These are continuous and the most available high volume dryer. Many industries prefer these dryers because they have more adaptations. The adaptations are facilitated by the technology. The feed ...Show more

Summary

Bentonite Processing Name: Course: Tutor: Date: Bentonite is an industrial rock that occurs naturally. This rock has the water absorbing property as well as base exchange capacity. These two properties are far much better than the properties possessed by kaolin and plastic clay…
Author : waltermelany
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