A comprehensive research has been conducted to identify and measure the impact of alum sludge on farmlands and critically evaluate the beneficial uses of this element, so that they are used after considering all costs and benefits associated with its adoption. Additionally, the literature material that I have selected to make part of my research studies has been discussed in detail to justify their relevance and significance for reaching a suitable conclusion. Moreover, this paper entails the practical application and effectiveness of alum sludge that is being used for various diversified purposes in real world. This report highlights implications of presence of alum sludge with regards to pH value (acidity or alkalinity) of soil, forest trees and effective growth of plants. Finally, a concrete conclusion has been drawn at the end of this report to summarize the findings of entire research. Literature review I have mainly included 3 scholarly resources in my research to provide adequate reading material, research findings and strong discussions to enable me to reach a rational conclusion for my study. The first study was carried out by Rengasamy, Oades and Hancock in 1980 whereby they studied pros and cons of usage of alum sludge and concluded that it must be mixed in soils since it provides a strong structure and nourishment for plants. However, they suggested that conclusions are still dubious and require further research and verification at rates of the order of 2 t ha?1 (Rengasamy, Oades & Hancock, 1980). Next literature piece I have selected for my research is a study conducted with focus on adsorption capacity of alum sludge. This research revealed that alum sludge is highly useful for eradication of phosphate from wastewater due to its adsorbent characteristics. This article noted that alum sludge has been frequently questioned in various previous researches for its abilities and success rates when being used for adsorption process. The authors examined effects of pH value of soil on adsorption patterns exhibited by alum sludge and concluded that the phosphorus is highly susceptible to adsorption in acidic environment which have a lower pH as compared to more alkaline composition with higher pH strength. This article has also presented results of other similar studies (Yang et al, 2006). The final study pertains to features of dried alum and its effects on different subjects in different conditions. It shows how alum acted as a liming catalyst in enabling improvement and nourishing of potting media. This study gives me an entirely distinct viewpoint since it suggests that the growth of plants is adversely affected due to presence of alum, causing adsorption and scarcity of phosphorous in fertilizers which are intended to provide cultivation support for soil plants. Authors also are of opinion that alum sludge, when sprayed on deciduous and coniferous forest lands, increases soil pH but has no positive effect on growth of trees. Nevertheless, they ensure through their findings that sludge is harm-free and does not contain any toxic effects (Bugbee, et al., 1985). Research Methods I adopted a skeptical approach to conduct my research, covering all areas comprehensively and thoroughly. I have selected the 3 sources after careful consideration since they all have worked on mutually exclusive issues pertaining to usage of alum sludge and also have given varying conclusions and outcomes of their findings. My research procedures began with verifying the results
Research Project Report – Effects of Alum Sludge and its Application to Farmland Introduction Alum sludge is a component generated during purification of drinking water at water treatment plants, due to presence of aluminium sulfate acting as a coagulant…
The tasks relating to management of an organisation have become more complex comparing to traditional organisational concept. Many critics have defined this modern period as ‘Post-Modern’, because there have been significant changes in the human activities and their thought processes.
A schematic of a mud cleaner is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Mud Cleaner As seen from the figure, the fluid with the suspended drilled solid particles that need to be removed is fed through the inlet. It passes through a rotating hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone is cylindrical on the upper side and conical in the lower side.
In the given case study, the one year forward rate of the of British pound can be calculated as follows Country Nominal annual interest rate Spot rate USA 0.78% N/A UK 1.58% 1.62 Substituting the values in the interest rate parity formula Forward rate = ( 1 + 0.0158 ) x 1.62 1 + 0.0078 Forward rate = 1.633 The exchange rate can be determined using the purchasing power parity theory as follows Fr = 1 + Po Sr 1 + Pd Where Fr is the theoretical parity forward rate which is being determined Sr is the current spot rate Po is the prevailing inflation rate of the overseas country; and Pd is the prevailing inflation rate of the domestic country.
This essay analyzes design. The major goal of a design phase in a software project is to develop a system specification which takes cost, time and resources into account. The system specification is like a collection of the blueprints which the team ought to follow while building the application. The development team puts together the information.
The Cumulative recorder was with 60 seconds bin number of responses/ number of reinforcement (Psych Lab online, n.d.). The first half of the graph shows responses when food pellet is given to the bird every time it peck the
For most of the progressive companies, reimbursement involves unlimited number of courses that can have direct or indirect relationship to the employees’ current job. According to a survey by Esen & Collision
That is, I came up with a new variable and tried to set its data type in a different way that never exists in visual basic and when I tried to save my changes by moving cursor off that line of code, I got an error indication from visual studio. I ignored the error