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Monitoring pain response in DBS patients - Essay Example

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Monitoring pain response in DBS patients

As a result, researchers have presented several studies to determine and explain the DBS mechanism in a way that people could understand. High-frequency stimulation is the method used to minimize the tremors and seizures (Kim 2013). DBS is believed to trigger the release of neurochemical by the application of high frequency stimulation. DBS is beneficial in this filled because it helps in relief and management of pain in patients with movement disorders. However, it also presents several challenges that threaten its effective application, for example, recent and future changes in technology, attitude, as well as health risks such as brain bleeding, stroke among others (Kim 2013). This paper seeks to explore this topic by looking at literature review if the issue, recent developments and its benefits in the area of biomedical engineering. Introduction DBS is a surgical treatment whereby a neurostimulator device delivers minute electrical signals to the parts of the brain that controls movement. This occurs in three parts; first, a thin insulated wire referred to as electrode is placed into the brain. Second, a neurostimulator (pace-maker like device) is placed under the skin near the collarbone or may be placed somewhere else in the body. Lastly, an extension in the form of another thin, insulated wire connects the electrode to the neurostimulator. DBS was discovered in 1980s to relieve tremor using high frequency stimulation of certain parts of the brain. As a result, DBS replaced the traditional ablative procedures by emerging as the surgical treatment option for movement disorders such as tremors, Parkinson’s disease, tics and dystonia. The DBS system can be activated and deactivated by putting a magnet in the area of the chest with the IPG or neurostimulator. This has a small battery of a lifespan of five years, which produces the electrical pulses required for stimulation (Patterson, et al. 2007). Unlike in the traditional ablative procedures, the stimulating electrodes in DBS, which includes voltage, pulse width and frequency of stimulation, can be customized and adjusted to an individual’s needs. Further, there is rare occurrence of potential risks such as infection, stroke or hemorrhage. If side effects occur, they are reversible and include swallowing and speech difficulties, weakness, and abnormal sensations. DBS was principally used for treatment of movement disorders associated with Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor, but it has since been applied to certain nonmotor conditions and other types of movement disorders. The main goal of DBS is to relieve pain or restore function by stimulating neural activity by use of surgically implanted electrode. Literature Review Mechanism of Action Since its introduction, DBS continues to be effective in reducing dyskinesias, improving motor function and reducing symptom fluctuations brought by on-off medication effects especially in the case of Parkinson’s disease (Maruo, et al. 2011). Success in DBS treatment depends on precise neutral targeting, careful selection of patients, and extensive individualized programming. The bottom-line is that DBS does not treat the disorders completely, but it helps in managing pain and reducing severe symptoms in Parkinson’s disease such as rigidity, tremor, slow movements, stiffness and walking problems (Burns, et al. 2007). DBS surgery has been successful in treating neuropathic pain, but the ...Show more

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Monitoring Pain Response in DBS Patients Institution Professor Abstract DBS is a surgical technique used to treat movement diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, in which it acts to relieve the patients of pain. Since its introduction, this technique has been formula replacing other traditional methods such as ablative procedures…
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