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# Electro-Magnetic Wave Propagation for the course Propagation and Antennas - Research Paper Example

## Extract of sample Electro-Magnetic Wave Propagation for the course Propagation and Antennas

This paper discuss the properties of waves during propagation. I. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation otherwise abbreviated as EMR refers to forms of energy which are produced by oscillating magnetic and electric disturbances or by movement of electrically charged particles travelling through matter or a vacuum [1]. Electromagnetic Radiation is in the forms of waves. These waves include: Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared, X- rays and Gamma-rays [1]. The magnetic and electric fields resulting in the electromagnetic waves interact by coming together at right angles to each other and these combined waves move perpendicular to both electric and magnetic oscillating fields and as a result, the disturbance is caused [2]. The resulting electron radiation is released in bundles of light energy which travel at a speed of 299 792 458 m / s, equivalent to the speed of light, as quantized harmonic waves. These electromagnetic waves are grouped according to their wavelength and these results in the electromagnetic spectrum [3]. The resultant magnetic and electric waves move perpendicularly to each other having certain characteristics which are Amplitude, frequency and wavelength [2]. From the origin of the electromagnetic wave, it is propagated outwards in all directions however depending on the type of medium in which it is travelling [2]. For instance if its air, the wave spreads out in a uniform manner in all directions in the medium [4]. After the wave has moved far from its origin, the wave is considered to have spread enough and it appears as though it has it has the same amplitude everywhere which is perpendicular to its direction of flow [4]. And this results in a plane wave. The electromagnetic wave’s speed is equivalent to light speed in a vacuum. When the waves travel in other medium such as water air, and glass, the speed is slower as compared to that in a vacuum [4]. Characteristics of these electromagnetic waves during propagation include; II. Interference This is the process in which two waves superposes to form one resultant wave. For interference to occur, the source of the waves must be coherent [5]. If two electromagnetic waves having the same frequency get together i.e. they superpose, it results into a wave which has the resultant magnetic and electric field strength equal to the sum of fields of the two waves [5]. When two strong waves moving that have their fields moving in one direction, i.e. same direction in time and space, the resulting waveform is twice that of each individual waveform. This results in constructive interference. However, the superposition of a wave having an electric field in one direction in space and with another electromagnetic radiation wave which has the same frequency but with an electric field in the opposite direction in space and time results in cancellation and a result, there is no formation of a waveform [6]. This implies that the two waves are not in phase. The resultant effect is termed as destructive interference. In summary, superposition of wave’s results in destructive, constructive or partial interference considering the magnitude of the waves being superposed [1]. III. Reflection During the transit of electromagnetic wave from one medium into another, and the two media having different refractive index, the speed of the wave changes the transmitted is made to change ...Show more

## Summary

Electromagnetic Wave propagation Abstract – To communicate wirelessly involves transmission of signal either analogue or digital from one geographical location to another. To facilitate this, modulation is necessary to enable encoding of the information onto another carrier wave using either digital or analogue techniques…
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