Within the real environment, the operational requirements include flexibility and maintainability of the equipment, in an economically viable manner. Economic and operational viability considerations should ensure the sustainability of the equipment in the real environment. The operation of the equipment in the real environment relies heavily on the adaptability of the equipment to the environment, and the closeness of the idealized and real situations. The designing should consider the implications presented by the processes of transferring heat between different mediums. The heat-transfer coefficient could be utilized to calculate the changes expected during transferring of heat from the equipment to the environment. This coefficient could be utilized in establishing the heat losses experienced during transfer from heating elements to the required environment. The overall coefficients remain totally related to the specified film transfer coefficients and resistances. The coefficients of the materials sometimes contain a significant variance, and during designing, engineers should take care to ensure the variance does not become large. The engineers ought to utilize proper equations in establishing the coefficients and ensuring correctness of mean temperature difference. The mean temperature difference always varies between different points of the exchangers and correctness of these calculations remains fundamental in ensuring development of a properly, functioning heat-transfer equipment. Though engineers could make numerous assumptions when calculating the mean temperature difference, they should note that the accuracy of the figure in the real environment always varies following inclusion of assumptions when performing calculations. These assumptions only provide assistance in establishing a possible value fro mean temperature difference. The exchangers utilized in heat-transfer equipment have different flows ranging from countercurrent to concurrent flow, and a cross-flow combining both of these flows. In calculating the mean temperature difference in exchangers having cross-flow, a correction factor must be established to ensure accuracy of the calculation. The correction factor remains essential in establishing the functionality of equipment as measures compatibility of the exchanger flow. A correction factor below 0.8 remains unacceptable as it implies inefficiency of the chosen exchanger. Designing of the exchanger includes consideration of the requirements of the equipment in terms of quantity of heat transferred. The design of double-pipe heat exchangers remains simplified and reserved to natural-convection heat-transfer. These exchangers normally appear in complex series of pipes, running parallel to one another, either horizontally or vertically. On the other hand, baffled shell-and tube exchangers consist of a pipe inserted inside another, with the outer pipe acting as a shell to the inner pipe. This exchanger remains ideal for cross-flow situation within exchangers. The calculation of baffle spacing in these exchangers utilizes exact values and not estimates. This makes the functioning of these exchangers accurate from the calculations and deficiencies could be established during designing of the exchanger. The calculation of the various exchanger parameters remains accurate owing to the utilization of actual figures, as opposed to estimated figures. Thermal
Heat transfer Equipment Author Institution Course grade 3rd May 2012 Heat transfer Equipment This chapter provides a detailed explanation of the different designs of heat-transfer equipment, commonly utilized by engineers in developing functional equipment for performing specified heat related activities…
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