StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Spoken and written discourses - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet
The word discourse is picked from the Latin term ‘discursus’ which is defined as ‘conversation, speech.’ From a linguistic point of view the term discourse is defined as a continuous stretch of language, which is larger than a sentence and often constitutes coherent units such as argument, joke, sermon, or narrative A discourse is not necessarily long; short conversations/ groans can be equally described as discourse just as a novel would. Discourses may be classified in many ways: written or spoken discourse; classification according to level of formality; classification according to genre; or classification according to the number of participants, whether on or many.For a conversation to be classified as a written or spoken discourse it needs to fulfill several criteria as Beaugrande (1981) explains. They include cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativeness, situationality, and intersexuality. This paper compares the written and spoken discourses. Differences between Spoken and Written discourses The main difference between spoken and written discourse lies in the fact that spoken language must be understood immediately whereas written discourse can be referred to many times (Crystal 1997). Unlike in written discourses, which involves medium that keeps a record of its conveyed message, spoken discourse involves only air and thus conversation is possible only up to the moment it occurs. The speed of conversation also varies between the two mediums of discourse. In spoken discourse, the speaker uses the speed that is appropriate for him/her; such speed is not necessarily convenient for the listener. The speed in spoken discourses is usually varying but faster than in written discourses. Other differences may be classified into: Contextualization Spoken discourse offers a natural form of speech where the audience is usually present. This speech facilitates effective communication since the speakers are able to get feedback from their listeners. This, however, means that spoken discourse has more repetition as the audience asks for clarification on unclear points. Written discourse as Crystal (1997) explains has an audience that is usually farther away and mostly unknown. Writers experience some disconnect in relation to the audience since the audience is not nearby; the writers only try to imagine what their intended audience would appreciate. Such a distance makes writing discourses inherently more difficult compared to spoken discourses. However, some genres of spoken discourse such as academic discourse, have minimal context of shared content, no feedback is encouraged immediately. On the other hand, some written discourses also employ the feedback of the readers who provide background information of the discourses usually through interviews. Spontaneity Spoken discourses tend to be largely unorganized where topics can change at any moment; interruption and overlapping of communication can occur often (Halliday 1989). In the spoken discourses, speakers can ask for clarification as well as correct what has already been said. Written discourses, on the other hand, are more organized and grammatical (Halliday 1989). The audiences of written discourses only get the finished product and cannot make any modification or clarification. The written discourses are having limited ways of conveying their message; written discourses are more constrained. Lexical characteristics Spoken discourses have a lower percentage of different words than written discourses. Spoken discourses are marked with longer and more repetitions unlike written discourses where repetitions are limited. Spoken discourses generally have shorter, less complex phrases. They contain more verb-based phrases and less abstract words. In addition to this, they also contain more words that refer to the speaker (Halliday 1989). Written discourses, on the other hand, have a more complex lexical characteris ...Show more
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Spoken and written discourses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/english/110590-spoken-and-written-discourses
(Spoken and Written Discourses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
https://studentshare.net/english/110590-spoken-and-written-discourses.
“Spoken and Written Discourses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/english/110590-spoken-and-written-discourses.
  • Cited: 0 times

Summary

The word discourse is picked from the Latin term ‘discursus’ which is defined as ‘conversation, speech.’From a linguistic point of view the term discourse is defined as a continuous stretch of language,which is larger than a sentence and often constitutes coherent units such as argument or narrative…
Spoken and written discourses
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Spoken and written discourses"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Buddhist Discourses
Short Essay Philosophy: Buddhist Discourses. In his argument which is in favor of ‘no permanent self’ Buddha systematically builds his case through discussion with his disciples. Though I tend to agree with most of the points of his argument, I disagree with his conclusion that there is no such thing as the permanent self.
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Analyze Epictetus Major Works: Discourses Enchiridion
These things on which they form their opinions are usually those things of which they have no control. However, since people generally do not know this weakness in them, they tend to act otherwise and are easily subdued by what is negative. Both works of Epictetus, the Discourses and the Enchiridion, seem to have been written on the following premise: The world is evil, people tend to be easily overcome by this evil, and thus tend to frustrate someone’s goals.
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Strategy and key discourses
Essay Plan Table of Contents Introduction 3 Discourse Analysis 3 Three Horizons for Strategy 4 Discourse Analysis of Risks Involved in Using the Three Horizons Framework for Strategy 7 Levels of Strategy 7 Discourse Analysis of the Notion of Levels of Strategy 12 Conclusion 13 References 14 Introduction Strategy is one of the key constituents within the periphery of an organisation needed to set forth and determine the long-term aims and objectives of the company.
11 pages (2750 words) Essay
Obesity Discourses and Physical Education
Answer revealed to be 19.3 next to it BMI was written, indicating that the body mass index of 12 year-old Tom. All the text and numbers were erased. In it says that the BMI of 12 year-old Tom corresponded to Normal Weight Range. A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered to be normal weight.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Mystical Discourses in Philosophy
If society neglects to present convincing authority in regards to questions of Being, individuals often recoil to the internal sanctum of thoughts and feelings. In the alluring, vivacious, and sinister recesses of private musings, existence is validated and given merit.
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Function of spoken conversation
Discussions wouldn't last for more than a minute; and arguments would be so tiresome people wouldn't bother having them. To be honest, I think the world might be a more peaceful place then. Spoken Communication is described by the Free Online Dictionary as communicating by word of mouth.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
ANALYSIS OF WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE
t only upon the different viewpoints of the reporters and stations involved, but also because of the inherent natures of the medium through which is it delivered. Whereas television and radio can depend to some degree upon the vocal inflections and body language of the
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Spoken Tactics
However, now the bank (my organization) has announced a public gathering to celebrate the event. The bank is looking forward to double its growth within the coming two years and therefore employee motivation and public relations are of
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Analyse a discourses in 'Discourses and Variation' subject
CDA is therefore crucial in discovering how students subtly apply textual terminology and discursive methods to query the phenomena, but solid retail and problematic
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
Discourses of Heterosexuality
The two articles describe the demands for repertoires of sexuality for both genders and in different ways depict men’s and women’s natures and relationships between the
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Spoken and written discourses for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us