Under the philosophy, different scholars prompted the discovery of schools of thought such as the Pythagoreanism, Sophism, and Platonism. These schools of thought have significantly shaped the thinking of people living in those times.
Another exemplar facet of Western Civilization is the religion. Around 700 BCE, Ancient Rome came into power and led many people in subjecting to Roman Catholic which believes in God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit to be one person equal in power.
Roman Catholic was gaining its popularity among people in those times. Popes were being praised, people come at their feet and kiss them, and they generally gave what they have materially in order to gain the attention and blessings of the popes.
Amidst the church’s great influence is a man who courageously sees and speaks of its flaws. Looking at the prose titled “Grand Inquisitor”, Fyodor Dostoevsky boldly scrutinized it with an aim of “an attack to the Catholic Church”.
Apart from a system of education and religion mentioned earlier, Western Civilization promoted values and issues such as rational argument, human rights, equality, democracy and free thought. Regarding the last, the prose gave nothing but a wide array of reflections.
One point in the prose states, “…gift of freedom with which the ill-fated creature is born” (Dostoevsky). The gift of freedom stemmed out from Jesus Christ’s choice when he was on earth, at a time when Satan approached him in the mountains to tempt him. The three temptations to Christ, were first, the earthly bread. This was followed by casting his own self while at the same time trusting that he will be saved by the angels, and the third, choosing the word kingdom to gain unity upon earth. The issue of freedom revolved around these three temptations. The Grand Inquisitor presented the results and the curse or consequences of Christ rejections of the three while questioning the nature of man. Regarding the first temptation, the Grand Inquisitor mentioned that Christ’s failure of choosing the earthly bread over the heavenly bread resulted to unhappy people with freedom. This is shown by this passage, “…the terrible gift that had brought them such suffering…” Freedom allowed people to carry on independently. Freedom casted a provider, or a leader, according to the Grand Inquisitor. Thus, people suffer because having no ruler is like being a sheep driven into confusion and misery. It is a common human nature to worship and be a slave of someone, “Feed men, and then ask of them virtue! That’s what they’ll write on the banner which they will raise against Thee”. Such philosophy is seen when human chose to be led by political leaders like Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin (Dostoevsky). They were willing to give up their freedom and be in subjection to rulers who would give them the earthly bread despite the persecutions they impose. Another scene which illustrates that is when Christ went down from the heavens to make miracles like resurrecting a dead one and healing the ailing ones. Upon seeing the miracles performed by Jesus, people came at his feet and started to do acts of worship to him. The Grand Inquisitor pointed out that Christ must have satisfied people if only he did not reject Satan’s temptation. That way, he will serve for the sake of many and make himself famous as a grand provider just like what the pillars of the church are doing. The second temptation reveals that Christ’