Discourse analysis involves such aspects as small talk, talk-in-interaction and also computer-mediated communication.
Small talk is a causal type of conversation which is used to break an awkward silence between two people (Goffman, 1981). Thus it is considered as a strategy in managing the interpersonal distance. This is vital as sometimes it is not ethical to be without saying anything. There are certain instances and situations in which small talk is considered appropriate. There are also some commonly used topics in small talk. Thus small talk facilitates the creation of a positive face among the people and it can have at the beginning or at the end of the conversation.
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) is described as some form of communicative transaction that occurs between two or more computers which are in a network. Basically this term has been utilized to define interactions that take place through computer-mediated formats such as e-mails, chat rooms and instant messaging (Thurlow, Lengel & Tomica, 2004). However it also involves other forms of communication such as text messaging. Research on CMC concentrates mostly on social impact of computer-supported communication technologies. CMC is a concept that has been evolving over time with the advent of technology. Sometimes there is deviation from the conventional means such as the use of audio visual technologies in contrast to the totally text based forms of communication.
Discourse Analysis (DA) is a method that has been used to analyze written, spoken or signed language in any significant semiotic activity. It is a qualitative approach that has been developed by psychologists (Heritage, 1997). The objectives are;
1. Analyze natural occurring of language, which is not invented before. Related activities are Corpus linguistics and text linguistics.
2. Define coherent sequences of speech acts or sequence of statements
3. Define syntax, lexicon, style, speech act and aspects of interaction
4. Define various types of disclosures in media, education science and business
Discourse analysis is begins with research questions which are not formal sense. Aim theoretical positions when preparing questionnaire (Potter, 1997). This can be a text which is deconstructive but relate to identities. Topics can be identified including men's friendships, Family background inquiries, about marriage, and so on. It identifies the theoretical orientation to understand the analysis and also try to understand themes in what people want. With the help of utterance it can be abstracted about what is being said. But there will be inconsistency and sometimes an attempt to arise blame, regular interruption of people, and so on.
1. Report collected information that can be abstracted.
2. Critique own interpretations
3. Reconsider the research question and state what theory and practice in Psychology can be applied.
In normal day-today usage it could be mentioned that the term text is used exclusively to define written language, whereas discourse is used to describe spoken language exclusively. However Linguists have in recent times use the term text to define all types of utterances. A few examples of text maybe a magazine article, a television interview or a cooking recipe. Text Linguistics is defined as "the formal account of the linguistic principles governing