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English to Japanese Translation
Pages 4 (1004 words)
Many of the difficulties that Japanese learners have with English are not due to problems with the language itself but are more the result of cultural differences. Aspects such as age, sex, relationship and relative status heavily influence communication between any two people in Japan.
David Watt, in his book ,"The Phonology and Semology of Intonation in English: An Instrumental and Systemic Perspective" has carried out an interesting study on intonation.He points out that a major difficulty of doing description of intonation is the inherently gradient characteristic of the spoken medium. Watt offers a revealing quote from Bolinger: 'The higher the rise, the greater the exasperation if it is a statement, the greater the surprise of curiosity if it is a question. The lower the fall the greater the certainty or finality if the utterance is a statement, and the greater the confidence if it is a question' [1986:240]. That is, in Watt's own words: '...the greater the degree of the rise, or the height of a given contour, the greater the strength of the contextual meaning assumed for that contour' (p. 109).
With regard to transfer, several proposals have been put forth, but evidence supporting a linear relationship with proficiency is lacking. Takahashi and Beebe (1987) first proposed that L2 proficiency positively correlated with pragmatic transfer, but their findings did not support this hypothesis. ...
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