David Watt, in his book ,"The Phonology and Semology of Intonation in English: An Instrumental and Systemic Perspective" has carried out an interesting study on intonation.He points out that a major difficulty of doing description of intonation is the inherently gradient characteristic of the spoken medium. Watt offers a revealing quote from Bolinger: 'The higher the rise, the greater the exasperation if it is a statement, the greater the surprise of curiosity if it is a question. The lower the fall the greater the certainty or finality if the utterance is a statement, and the greater the confidence if it is a question' [1986:240]. That is, in Watt's own words: '...the greater the degree of the rise, or the height of a given contour, the greater the strength of the contextual meaning assumed for that contour' (p. 109).
With regard to transfer, several proposals have been put forth, but evidence supporting a linear relationship with proficiency is lacking. Takahashi and Beebe (1987) first proposed that L2 proficiency positively correlated with pragmatic transfer, but their findings did not support this hypothesis. Takahashi (1996) also found no effect for proficiency on transfer in her study of EFL learners as both low and high proficiency learners relied on some L1 based strategies. Rather, the transfer of indirect strategies appeared to interact with perceptions of degree of imposition of the request. At higher levels of proficiency, Hill (1997) found negative transfer of some indirect strategies. This is a finding that Iyanaga, et al. (in press) support by claiming that Want Statements such as "I want you to correct this letter," which are considered direct in English, may actually be transferred from an indirect strategy in the L1 where the sentence final particle ga indicates that the requester is intentionally omitting the Head Act to mitigate the imposition, as in "kono tegami o kouseishite itadakitai n desu ga. . . ." On the other hand, Churchill (1999) has provided evidence that transfer of strong hints in the form of the negative (e.g. "I don't have this print") occur at very low levels of proficiency. Thus, it appears that the relationship between transfer and proficiency is not simply linear as Takahashi and Beebe first proposed. Rather, with pragmatic transfer, it may be more appropriate to gather evidence on when specific kinds of transfer occur and to compare these findings with concurrent changes in grammatical competence. Such an approach might suggest the need for data collected longitudinally that could be compared with concurrent data on learner request realizations in their L1. Having data in both languages would allow the researcher to make definitive claims as to when transfer was occurring with which linguistic feature for the learners in
Many of the difficulties that Japanese learners have with English are not due to problems with the language itself but are more the result of cultural differences. Aspects such as age, sex, relationship and relative status heavily influence communication between any two people in Japan…
According to the research findings the Constitution of Japan will go through a modification within a period of five years. But some experts do disagree on this conclusion; they say that any unforeseen circumstances can change the ultimate view of Japan. An entrenched ideology, as it is seen, pacifism even though weakening will go through a slow change rather than a rapid one.
The social media of a county aims to share the social, religious and national life and culture of that country. When it comes to transferring meanings from one language into another language both written and spoken, it involves considerations not only grammatical, semantic and lexical level but also on contextual and cultural level.
According to the research, the important thing is to be the first in the industry. As the first to introduce this in the global setting would provide leverage for any business as that company would automatically be the benchmark of all other following industries. They may have their own technology, but the novelty has already been captured.
This essay describes the translation, that is a crucial activity within the realm of human communication because it allows people with different languages to understand each other. That translation is important in a globalising world is noticeable by the growing presence of local products in foreign shops and foreign products in local shops.
In the process of learning English as a foreign language, it is quite common to the learners to find difficulty in certain particular areas of the language and in the case of Japanese learners of English, especially the learners of lower intermediate tertiary level, the use of definite and indefinite article provide with an area of difficulty, where it is common for the learners to make errors.
This business was marked by the promotion of a global Western culture through the translation and dubbing of English versions of movies and cartoons into the native language of the area in which they were traded.
Dubbing the practice of replacing the original or voice by another is a practice as old as the 20th century it was developed as way for exporting American cinema to the Non-English speaking audiences initially.
It was one filled with all manner f bizarre ghosts, witches and creatures, where mind-boggling and strange events were the norm.
Grotesque spirits come together at a bathhouse for herb-scented soaks and complementary back rubs; little girls are kidnapped and taken to a cat kingdom where they are honoured with the Cat Prince's paw in marriage; pirates driving steam-powered flying machines search for a treasure-filled island in the sky.
Despite any skills in communicating, language is an entity that can never truly posses absolute clarity. "Lost in Translation" is a phenomenal example. A washed-up actor Bob Harris and young photographer's wife Charlotte are two Americans fussed together by the unfamiliar culture of Japan.