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English to Japanese Translation - Essay Example

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English to Japanese Translation

David Watt, in his book ,"The Phonology and Semology of Intonation in English: An Instrumental and Systemic Perspective" has carried out an interesting study on intonation.He points out that a major difficulty of doing description of intonation is the inherently gradient characteristic of the spoken medium. Watt offers a revealing quote from Bolinger: 'The higher the rise, the greater the exasperation if it is a statement, the greater the surprise of curiosity if it is a question. The lower the fall the greater the certainty or finality if the utterance is a statement, and the greater the confidence if it is a question' [1986:240]. That is, in Watt's own words: '...the greater the degree of the rise, or the height of a given contour, the greater the strength of the contextual meaning assumed for that contour' (p. 109).
With regard to transfer, several proposals have been put forth, but evidence supporting a linear relationship with proficiency is lacking. Takahashi and Beebe (1987) first proposed that L2 proficiency positively correlated with pragmatic transfer, but their findings did not support this hypothesis. Takahashi (1996) also found no effect for proficiency on transfer in her study of EFL learners as both low and high proficiency learners relied on some L1 based strategies. Rather, the transfer of indirect strategies appeared to interact with perceptions of degree of imposition of the request. At higher levels of proficiency, Hill (1997) found negative transfer of some indirect strategies. This is a finding that Iyanaga, et al. (in press) support by claiming that Want Statements such as "I want you to correct this letter," which are considered direct in English, may actually be transferred from an indirect strategy in the L1 where the sentence final particle ga indicates that the requester is intentionally omitting the Head Act to mitigate the imposition, as in "kono tegami o kouseishite itadakitai n desu ga. . . ." On the other hand, Churchill (1999) has provided evidence that transfer of strong hints in the form of the negative (e.g. "I don't have this print") occur at very low levels of proficiency. Thus, it appears that the relationship between transfer and proficiency is not simply linear as Takahashi and Beebe first proposed. Rather, with pragmatic transfer, it may be more appropriate to gather evidence on when specific kinds of transfer occur and to compare these findings with concurrent changes in grammatical competence. Such an approach might suggest the need for data collected longitudinally that could be compared with concurrent data on learner request realizations in their L1. Having data in both languages would allow the researcher to make definitive claims as to when transfer was occurring with which linguistic feature for the learners in ...Show more


Many of the difficulties that Japanese learners have with English are not due to problems with the language itself but are more the result of cultural differences. Aspects such as age, sex, relationship and relative status heavily influence communication between any two people in Japan…
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English to Japanese Translation essay example
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