David Watt, in his book ,"The Phonology and Semology of Intonation in English: An Instrumental and Systemic Perspective" has carried out an interesting study on intonation.He points out that a major difficulty of doing description of intonation is the inherently gradient characteristic of the spoken medium. Watt offers a revealing quote from Bolinger: 'The higher the rise, the greater the exasperation if it is a statement, the greater the surprise of curiosity if it is a question. The lower the fall the greater the certainty or finality if the utterance is a statement, and the greater the confidence if it is a question' [1986:240]. That is, in Watt's own words: '...the greater the degree of the rise, or the height of a given contour, the greater the strength of the contextual meaning assumed for that contour' (p. 109).
With regard to transfer, several proposals have been put forth, but evidence supporting a linear relationship with proficiency is lacking. Takahashi and Beebe (1987) first proposed that L2 proficiency positively correlated with pragmatic transfer, but their findings did not support this hypothesis. ...Show more