Name Instructor Class July 27, 2011 Nihilism, Provisional Existence, and Forfeiture of Meaning Jackson's The Lottery and LeGuin's The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas reveal how people can choose to be evil, because they feel that this is justified and life has no meaning anyway…
The tribes of these stories are considered as nihilists, because they lack spiritual maturity and focus on the meaninglessness of life; they desire provisional existence, because they lack meaningful future goals and empathy for others; and they have forfeited spiritual meaning, since they have given up hope in changing their lives and enhancing their spiritual development. Tribalism affects nihilism by enforcing collective obedience to authority, thereby sacrificing their pursuit of spiritual maturity. The lottery is viewed as a joint ritual, where all people, young and old alike, participate in its processes and outcomes. People know how their prosperity is hinged on one human being's suffering every year, but they have looked away from their ritual's hideous process and result. Instead, they rationalize that the lottery is required for their existence, wealth, and continuity. Old Man Warner underscores that the lottery cannot be eliminated, like the other towns did, because “there's always been a lottery” (Jackson). He desires for the continuity of traditions. He further focuses on the benefits of the lottery: “Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon” (Jackson). He fails to morally analyze this ritual that he has embraced, since he can participate in it. He stands for the moral stagnation of his tribe. In The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas, people assert that their happiness and development are products of one “child's abominable misery” (LeGuin). Without this child's suffering, the “prosperity and beauty and delight” (LeGuin) of Omelas will no longer exist. As a whole, these tribes follow the laws and conventions that enable them to enjoy a “good” life. The main problem here is that through blind obedience to authority, they are sacrificing their spiritual growth. By denying to embrace suffering as a whole and transferring it to a single person, they fail to accept their suffering and find meaning in it. But these tribes no longer believe that there is value in collective suffering. Instead, they would rather accept a person's suffering to replace their own. Nihilism, moreover, does not reflect on outcomes and Frankl rejects this kind of life: “We must not despise our lives and treat our lives as if they were of no consequence at all” (Breakthrough Writing “Man's Search”). These tribes, nevertheless, reject the consequences of their actions as meaningful. They simply accept their rituals as it is, because “it is.” Tribalism, furthermore, develops nihilism, because these tribes no longer regard the meaning of life. Frankl believes in the value of being “worthy” of one's “sufferings,” for it provides “spiritual freedom” that makes life worth living for (72). The people in The Lottery does not see any meaning in life, as demonstrated in how they exist each day for rudimentary needs. The men focus on materialistic affairs, while women are relegated to the domestic domain and follow gender-stereotyped roles: “...men began to gather, surveying their own children, speaking of planting and rain, tractors and taxes...women, wearing faded house dresses and sweaters...exchanged bits of gossip as they went to join their husbands” (Jackson). No one gives a second to reflect on the morality of their actions, because they are focused on their daily survival. Everyone treats this day as any ordinary day with a sense of “disenchantment of the world” ...
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Existential vacuum is sadly a reality-based issue of the present overly modernized and industrialized world and it is even suggested to be a product of the widespread industrialization. The way Frankl lays emphasis on taking painstaking efforts to attach a constructive meaning to life in an order to escape the impending doom of existential vacuum makes the contrasting point of view to appear indigestible and fake, which suggests that search for meaning is merely an illusion that can lead a person nowhere.
Hulga and the Misfit are nihilists, because they have not emotionally matured and have found no meaning in their existence, and this belief and lack of maturity have made them destructive by nature. Hulga and the Misfit are also fatalistic, because they limit themselves to external forces and live by Frankl's notion of “provisional existence.” Nihilism is defined as the absence of emotional maturity in adults, and without this maturity, they cannot appreciate their lives.
there are sisters, brothers, mother and father, and children. In broader perspective, family may also include grandparents, uncles and aunts. “Families are one of the strongest socializing forces in life. They teach children to control unacceptable behavior, to delay gratification, and to respect the rights of others” (Kimani).
Descartes provided two proofs of the existence of God which are discussed and analyzed below. First proof of the existence of God given by Descartes is that; something cannot be created from nothing. It is one of the logics Descartes used to prove the existence of God.
At the same time, atheists question this argument. In their opinion, if nothing can be evolved out of emptiness, from where God comes. The arguments both in favor and against the existence of God seem to be ever lasting. In other words, it is impossible to either prove or disprove the existence of God.
Thinkers who devote a bigger portion of their life musing over eternal issues related to human existence are called existentialists. Even though the notion is rather new, ancient people engaged themselves in thinking over the purposefulness of human existence, trying to understand inner and outer drives of human thoughts, behaviors and deeds.
Ontological Arguments in Favor of the Existence of God Ontological arguments propose that god can be known through reason alone. Rene Descartes (1966) provided his ontological argument in Meditation 5 stating that God is the most perfect being to exist than not to exist.
Furthermore, it is important that those engaged in communication be good at questioning, analyzing gestures, and evaluating the context of communication. Basically, for communication to take place, there must be a person sending a message, the message itself, the medium of conveying the message and the recipient.
Some of these stories are in the form of epics, extremely long stories told in the form of poems or verbal histories handed out by itinerant storytellers who often embellish their stories with every re-telling they make. The stories are usually also in the form of parables designed to impart an important moral lesson.
Consequently, without any life-meaning, an individual will always try to fill-in the gnawing emptiness with misguided distractions that result into permanent individual destruction. These are the specific themes that Viktor airs in his text;
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