One Child Policy Effects in China Name of Tutor Effects of one-child policy in china Population and birth planning policy were first introduced during the Maoist time. The original policies aimed at increasing the population of china so that it met rapid industrialization goals at the time (Chan, 2004)…
This indicates that the present population by then had high potential growth rate. China was still an agricultural land by then and only 7 percent of China’s land was arable (Hu, 2006). This meant that china’s ability to accommodate such large and expected population was compromised. Since then policies set have aimed at lowering population growth in China using various programs to discourage birth of infants and also encourage use of contraception. The policies also targeted improving child and maternal healthcare and economic development (Chan, 2004). Gigantic China population growth was deploring economic development and had negative impacts toward the environment, so the one child policy was intended to match up population growth with economic performance and to ensure sustainable use of resources (Hu, 2006). Population policies in China did not begin with one- child policy. Population policies were a series of policies targeting reduction in population growth through education campaigns to families from 1971-1979. National and provincial birth target level was introduced which was translated to local level leading to one child policy which was introduced in 1979 and is still in effect to date. One child policy in China is enforced through various incentives. An example is that the incentives were applied in such a manner that rewarded parents who had one child like in preference to extra food, health care, kind of job, education opportunities, housing and included disincentives for non compliance involving fines, loss of education opportunities and even loss of job in the government (Hu, 2006). The targeted goal of the policy was to maintain the population of china under 1.2 billion and the officials were to enforce the policy to reach the goal through contraceptives usage and forced use of couple sterilization with more than one child (Chan, 2004). One child policy had reduced the population growth in China by an estimate of 300 million over a period of its first 20 years in action. It has come along with unprecedented problems which includes sex imbalance, sex –selective abortion, social safety issue in future and infanticide (Chan, 2004). Increasing Sex Ratio This is one of the major effects of one child policy in China brought about by traditional mentality of male preference over female sex, which has led to sex imbalance. Before the policy was implemented in China, the sex ratio by then was 1.06 countrywide. An example, is that the proportion of male to female at birth grew such that in 1988 it was 1:1 and by 2001 it was 1:17 as compared to other industrialized countries which had ratio ranging between 1:03 -1:07 (Chan, 2004). Various surveys conducted in reproductive health indicate that increased sex ratio presently continues both in urban and in rural areas. In rural areas the sex ratio is high from first birth that is from 1.05 compared to second birth, while in urban areas the sex ratio for first birth is 1.13 and rises to 1.30 in the second birth. This is due to the fact that Chinese in urban area are sex selective with first pregnancy since they are only allowed one child, while some Chinese in rural areas are permitted to have second children. Therefore, if the second pregnancy is female it is likely to be aborted to pave way for a second male child. Impact on children education One child policy ...
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