Aristotle Aristotle, the great philosopher was born in Stagira in north Greece. He was first trained in medicine as his father Nichomachus was the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. He was later sent to Athens to study philosophy under the great Greek philosopher Plato…
Later, he established his own school named ‘Lyceum’ in Athens when Alexander conquered Athens. The great genius is believed to have written more than 150 philosophical theses on wide range of rational problems. The subjects he mastered ranges from biology and physics to morals, aesthetics, and politics. Many of his findings in biology and physics were marvelous which pawed way for extensive research throughout several centuries. For instance, his brilliant observation unveiled several secrets of the anatomy of octopus, cuttlefish, and many other living organisms. He categorized animals into ‘genera’ according to their characteristics, and then distinguished species within genera. His treatise ‘Meteorology’ dealt with earth science through which he tried to answer the phenomena like thunder, lightning, rainbows, meteors, comets, earthquake, and the Milky Way. According to Aristotle’s view, the universe did not originate and hence never ends but only undergoes incessant changes or transforms from one condition to the other. Evidently, Aristotle’s findings on science and philosophy have been widely cherished by scholars of all times especially those of the Middle Ages under the influence of Christianity. The main cause of the acceptance of his theories was that they could be easily reconciled with Christian doctrines in many ways. Art and knowledge is one of areas where Aristotle’s ideas oppose to that of Plato. For instance, Plato argues that the appearance of poetry as a source of knowledge is rather deceptive. The opinion of Plato was contradicted by Aristotle in Poetics through the argument that poetry is capable of conveying the knowledge of universals to people (45). Thus, as McKeon purports, there arise two classes of thought; one that believes in the aesthetic value of art, and one that believes in the cognitive value of art. Aristotle comes up with three types of knowledge; theoretical, practical, and productive. The theoretical knowledge refers to the knowledge about things that are fundamental in nature. An example of this knowledge is the products and processes of nature. Practical knowledge refers to the knowledge that teaches what to do to address certain contingencies. Thirdly, productive knowledge teaches one how to make new things (241). Aristotle’s view of government also differed from Plato’s. Undoubtedly, both the scholars opposed to democracy to a great extent and according to them only members of the intellectual aristocracy constitute acceptable form of government. To be specific, Plato proposed a society that contains three classes based on their innate character. Individuals like farmers, artisans, and merchants constitute the bottom class. People like soldiers with strong wills and spirits form the middle class. Members of the intellectual aristocracy make the uppermost class because of their reasoning abilities. And the absolute control of political power is proposed for the intellectual aristocracy. Aristotle opposed monarchy, democracy, and aristocracy alike. Instead, what he proposed was polity’ which according to him was a government that situated between oligarchy and democracy. To illustrate, polity comprised of middle class people and would be a miniature of the population based on its size. However, he believed that the existence of a powerful government was essential for the welfare of the citizens. Aristotle, counts the virtue of ...
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This paper also sheds light on the impact of their works on evolution of psychology. 1. Isaac Newton and Development of Psychology Sir Isaac Newton is regarded as an eminent physicist whose remarkable work has played an important role in psychology. Laws of motion which are based on observation of common phenomenon helped in development of Commonsense Psychology.
This is part of his wider discourse on what is morally virtuous, wherein he famously explained how a person’s moral quality is characterized by how he responds to pleasure and pain. This is crucial for Aristotelian readers because this effectively enables them to discriminate characters better simply by examining his or her choices instead of the actions.
The author states that aristotle believed that soul is realizing one’s own natural body in its entirety. This means that all our psychological states are connected closely as well as the psychological processes that follow. Soul and body are therefore one and the same life wax and an impression formed on it.
He believes that passion is an innate feeling and reason has no real connection with it. Hume considers that passion is a moralistic feeling and has no bond with reasoning. He argues that passion as a strong human feeling arises out of lustful nature in person.
Purpose of Government according to Philosophers. The purpose for which governments should exist has been a preoccupation of philosophers from the classical period to the modern societies. While Plato and Aristotle represent classical philosophers, Hobbes and Locke are a part of what is seen as modern philosophers.
During his lifetime as a philosopher he made contributions to the fields of logic, metaphysics, mathematics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, ethics, politics, agriculture, dance, and theater (Iep). Aristotle was a very talented writer. Altogether he wrote more
In addition, the paper compares Aristotle’s analysis with the contemporary interpretation of courage by diverse individuals. Moreover, the paper includes a personal interpretation of the view of Aristotle on the matter of courage. Finally,
He argues that passion as a strong human feeling arises out of lustful nature in person. Passion is a feeling whinchats no boundaries, if aroused naturally and authentically in an individual. Hume understands the concepts and elements of life, as he is a deep thinker and has
sanction from the inner world of an individual, and finally it helps to maintain the balanced mental attitude whether the outcome is adverse or favorable. A friend does anything and everything for his friend. According to Aristotle, friendship is the finest and significant
He believed that politics and ethics are closely related that the virtuous and ethical life is only available to people who take part in politics and that the main purpose of political community is moral
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