Name: Class: Summary of Heath and Street (2008) Essay. This paper is a summary of an essay entitled “Language, Culture and Learning: Ethnographic Approaches” by Shirley Brice Heath and Brian V. Street which was published in 2008 as the first chapter of a book entitled Ethnography: Approaches to Language, Literacy and Research…
The authors make a distinction between organizations such as clubs and companies which come into being and fade away as required within society, and institutions like governments and education systems which are a much more permanent fixture in society (Heath and Street 5). These entities are important for ethnographers because they reflect the fundamental norms of each society. A person’s use of language, or in many cases of several languages, can reflect a whole range of cultural norms and patterns and so this, too, is an area of interest for those who wish to study and understand human behaviour in all kinds of settings. The authors make the point that identity and roles arise largely from learning which is gained through language and then expressed also through linguistic means, including such details as accent and hand gestures which vary quite considerably between different groups (Heath and Street 4). The authors underpin their essay with some standard definitions of linguistic features such as language and grammar and they emphasize the symbolic aspects of communication as well as its systematic patterns. There is a more critical discussion, however, about the definition of another key concept in this essay: the concept of culture. In this matter there is a clear rejection of standard definitions of culture as one of those nouns which “lead people to believe in fixed boundaries around things and events as well as beliefs and values” (Heath and Street 8). It is proposed that culture should be understood as a verb, or in other words, the focus should be on what people do rather than what they are imagined to be. An ethnographer must appreciate the difference between the rather rigid “meta-narratives” (Heath and Street 9) which organizations and institutions develop in order to sustain and promote themselves and the much more fluid way in which individuals move between different patterns and learn to express a range of cultures in their actions and their language. The metaphor of the juggler illustrates how an individual acquires new abilities through selecting his or her own goals and seeking out opportunities to learn both overt knowledge and tacit knowledge. Students in learn overtly from books and lectures, for example, but a juggler learns also through using his or her body in an intuitive way which may not be fully understood by the conscious mind. This tacit knowledge is acquired only by doing the chosen activity again and again, and letting the body find its own way of accomplishing desired feats remembering how to do this effectively. An interesting example based on the work of Hutchins (1995) is used to show how groups of people can develop this adaptive kind of learning also, through a combination of relying on earlier representations of similar groups and situations, and forming identities and patterns in the present time. People interact with tools and objects, and with each other, in very complex ways in order to complete difficult tasks such as ocean navigation, for example. The ethnographer observing such interactions must therefore be aware of the systemic qualities of culture as well as the ways that individuals perform that culture in both conscious and intuitive ways. The example of canoes being navigated without scientific instruments contrasts with the way that students learn in formal education, however, because the latter process concentrates on the ...
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Undoubtedly, all these elements are essential considerations for the practicing teacher in order that the learner is encouraged and stimulated to study and learn. First, language has a huge impact to learning. Harmon and Jones (2005) categorically compare language to a vehicle since both transmit a thing or idea (e.g., computer and information) from one place to another.
Second language is known as a language which is learnt apart from the mother or first language. For example, French is a second language for Americans and English is a second language for French people. Learning a second language involves a lot of efforts and endeavors.
It functions automatically. In contrast, the learned system is built via formal instruction, and involves conscious knowledge for the grammar rules. According to Krashen, these two systems operate independently, thus knowledge from one system cannot cross-over to the other.
This shows in national and state surveys indicating that ethnic and racial minority children are the most at-risk group in social institutions, with the most significant academic underachievement, high poverty rates, high teen pregnancy rates, low skill levels, and low-paying employment opportunities.
The scope of this paper is limited to a particular teacher teaching a specific course in a constant environment. Since a lot of factors including the nature, style and background of teacher and students matter, this case shouldn't be seen as a case for all scenarios.
The quotation by Slobin indicates language has been a system for those who despite being destitute are able to grasp language just like the way a socially privileged child learns. Though this child learns the language as a resource, to which Chomsky indicates that those who follow him are subjected to learn the central characteristic of language.
This report talks about English which is today the language of the world. People find it efficient to have a global language but at the same time are afraid of losing their language and with it their identity. Globally, for effective communication, there has to be a common language and English happens to be the most suitable language.
The author claims that a kind of language used in Hip- hop is basically English slang which is rhythmic in both rhyme and delivery over some music. The style of delivery is “rapping” which has its roots in the griots (folk poets) from Western Africa and was used regularly by the Jamaicans for toasting during festivals and other functions.
Just as postmodernism stood its ground in exhibiting a significant degree of deviation from the principles of modernism and equivalent ideologies of modernity such as structuralism, positivism, materialism, and realism, “street art” comprised the bulk of movement which was necessitated by artists who sought reform and flexible break.
In explaining this, we will consider some language theories presented by Lightbown and Spada, which concentrated on apprentices’ innate capacity while others emphasize the role of environment and social context (Lightbown, & Spada, 2012). Besides,
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