The Juvenile Penalty
...juvenile" status, while never explicitly dealt with in the court room, appears to play a significant role in determining the outcomes of some offenders. "The Juvenile Penalty" fails, however, to make a universal argument because it focuses upon a small and specific number of cases. Thus, the paper's underlying assumptions that juveniles receive harsher treatment than young adults may be accurate but requires additional studies to be proven correct.
Kurlychek, M. C., Johnson, B. D. (2004). The juvenile penalty: A comparison of juvenile and young
adult sentencing outcomes in criminal court. Criminology, 42(2), 485-517.... The Difference between Young...