Acid base titration
5 pages (1250 words) , Lab Report
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...Acid base titration Aim The experiment intended to ascertain concentrations of Dilute Hydrochloric acid and Dilute Sulphuric Acid solutions by conducting Acid-Base titrations. Hypothesis Phenolphthalein change of color from pink/purple to colorless signified a transformation of the solution’s nature from being basic to acidic, which was the reaction’s endpoint or neutrality point. This is because in acidic, basic conditions phenolphthalein indicator usually indicates colorless and pink/purple colors respectively....
Acid base and redox titration of vitamin C.
7 pages (1750 words) , Lab Report
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...Acid base and redox titration of vitamin C Introduction:This report seeks to determine the amount of vitamin C in a tablet. Using both redox reaction between vitamin C extract and iodine solution, and vitamin C extract and sodium hydroxide solution, the experiment will carry out titration reactions and apply stoichiometry concepts to determine the percentage of vitamin C in a tablet. The experiment will apply the concept of molality and stoichiometry to determine the number of moles and mass of vitamin C. Molarity is the concentration of solute particles in a solution. Measured in moles per unit volume, it shows the concentration in terms of the reacting units rather... Lab Partner: Lab Meeting Time:...
Acid-Base Equilibria
1 pages (250 words) , Lab Report
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...Acid-base Titration I Maximum score: 90 points Partner: Lab Section (Day & Time): Attach your plots from the three titrations and answer all of the following questions. 1. Attach your annotated plots and compare the titration curves for HCl, KHP, and one of the unknown acid, ►Near the start of each titration, ►Near the half-equivalence point, ►At the equivalence point, and ►For the region beyond the equivalence point. (40 points) Acid Trial pH at start of titration pH at half-equivalence point pH at equivalence point pH beyond equivalence point HCl 2.74 2.89 6.43 12.28 KHP 5.08 5.78 8.01 12.01 Unknown (averaged) 3.06 3.21 8.21 12.51 HCl KPH Unknown The titration curves for HCL... ...
Titration
3 pages (750 words) , Lab Report
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...Titration of sodium hydroxide using hydrochloric and sulphuric acids Acid-base titration to find the molarity of two acids Aim The aim of this lab practical is to carry out the titration of a base, sodium hydroxide with two acids: firstly hydrochloric acid and then sulphuric acid so as to determine the molarities of the two acids. Background theory When a base is titrated with an acid, the pH gradually changes until it reaches the...
Gas Laws and Soultions
1 pages (250 words) , Coursework
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...Acid-Base Titration Exercise Your First Your Submitted The strongest antacid on a single-dose basis is the CVS Brand, and the weakest is Rennies. The basis for this observation is the number of HCl millimoles that reacted when the antacids were added to the original HCl solution. Calculating for the number of millimoles that reacted with HCl uses the formula n = M x V (“Acid-Base Titrations, n.d.). 2. On a by-weight basis, the strongest antacid is Mylanta, while the weakest is Tums. 3. The titration involves the reaction NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O. The pH of the solution...
Computers and Science
1 pages (250 words) , Assignment
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...Based Computer-Assisted Teaching Materials on Precipitation Titrations use the quasi experimental design was used (Gay as cited by Kunduz 2013 787). The scenarios based on the 7E as based on real life chemical problems written by authors (786). The aim was to develop a computer assisted device which involved animations and laboratory academically computer software… used in unit ‘precipitationtitration’ (789). This is very helpful for students who find it difficult during titrations this study can help with the analysis of data, instrument and procedures and findings. Didactic Analysis of the web acid-base titration simulations applied in pre-graduate chemistry... number 22 June Computers and Chemistry ...
PH Titration
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...Titrations Background: In general, titration refers to an experimentally conducted process in chemistry lab, normally for the purpose of determining substance concentration of interest in a solution. Typically, acid-base titrations are applied in order to estimate the molarity either of an acid or a base used through a setup that consists of a burette that holds the ‘titrant’ and flask filled with ‘analyte’ or the solution with unknown concentration. During titration, it is essential to figure out the ‘equivalence point’ where moles of...
Acid-Base Equilibria
1 pages (250 words) , Lab Report
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...titration was performed by refilling the NaOH burette and repeating above steps. 11. Molarity of NaOH 0.1800M DATA SHEET VINEGAR ANALYSIS TITRATION #1 NaOH VINEGAR Initial Volume  0  0 Final Volume  45.87  10 Volume Used  45.87  10 TITRATION #2 NaOH VINEGAR  0  0  45.87  10  45.87  10 Titration curve At equivalence point, enough base has been added to reaction to react with all the acid present exhibiting a sharp increase in PH. At half-equivalence point, half of the acetic acid has been converted or turned... Vinegar Analysis Lab Report By and Partner May 7, Lab Objectives This laboratory experiment is conducted with the aimof achieving two objectives. These Objectives are: 1. To determine the concentrat...
Lab "Titration for Acetic Acid in Vinegar"
3 pages (750 words) , Lab Report
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...Titration for Acetic Acid in Vinegar Purpose: The purpose of this work is to understand the concepts of titration and practically realise its technique in order to determine the concentration of an acetic acid in solution. STEP SUBSTRATE REAGENT RESULT INFERENCE Trial 1 “Yutaka” Japanese Rice Vinegar (5 mL) 0.5 M NaOH Initial NaOH reading (mL) Final NaOH reading (mL) Volume of NaOH used (mL) Average volume of NaOH used is 7.5 mL 0 7.5 7.5 Trial 2 0 7.6 7.6 Trial 3 0 7.4 7.4 Calculations: 1) The average number of mL of NaOH used for the 3 trials: V(NaOH) = = 7.5 mL 2) The normality of the vinegar: Na = ; N(Vinegar) = = 0.75 mol/L 3) The mass of the acetic acid in grams... December 04, Experiment #...
PH Titrations
4 pages (1000 words) , Lab Report
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...Titrations Background Titration or titrimetry involves a method of laboratory that is used to analyze chemicals quantitavely and to determine the concentration of the unknown solution. The process is depended on the volume of a solution, a process that is referred to as volumentric analysis. A standard solution is defined as a reagent. In most cases, a concentration that is known reacts with the titrant volume to establish the concentration. Titration involves a group of experiments in which the known solution property is utilized in inferring to the unknown property of a different solution. In the chemistry of acids and bases, titration is used in determining the value of pH for different... ? PH...
Analytical Chem
5 pages (1250 words) , Lab Report
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...titration is based on change in electrode potential with change in the ionic concentration during titration reaction. During titration reaction, there is decrease in the ionic concentration in a solution and this leads to decrease in electrode potential in accordance with Nernst Equation, which relates electrode potential with concentration of the ion in equilibrium with the electrode. Depending upon the type of the titration reaction, potentiometric titration can be classified into following three categories – 1) Acid – Base Titration 2) Oxidation – Reduction (Redox) Titration 3... Microscale Potentiometric Titration of Halides Microscale potentiometric titration of a solution of two halides (KI and...
Titration Chemistry Essay
3 pages (750 words) , Download 0 , Essay
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...acids and bases that can be titrated. Titration reactions are usually divided into four common forms, with the first and most common being acid-base titrations. In this case, the molarity of an acid is determined using a standard solution of a base, or the molarity of the base is determined using a standard solution of an acid. These two forms of titration are called acidimetry and alkalimetry respectively (Tro 136). The second type of titration is called an oxidation-reduction reaction, or redox reactions, where the titration process involves the transfer of electrons between the analyte and the titrant (Tro 138). This type of titration is usually named after the main reagent in the process...
Polyprotic acid
5 pages (1250 words) , Lab Report
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...acid Phosphoric acid solution (0.1M) was titrated against ~0.2M NaOH solution in duplicate and titration curves of pH versus volume of NaOH (mL) were obtained. Both the titration curves displayed only 2 equivalence points instead of the expected 3 because the third equivalence point usually gets obscured as Ka3 is close to Kw, the water dissociation constant. The pH values at the observed equivalence points were nearly 1.5 times lower than the calculated values which were made based on the assumption that the molarity of the titrant NaOH was 0.2 while it actually was 0.232. Introduction An acid is defined, according to Brønsted and Lowry, as a compound which donates one or more protons... Polyprotic...
Complexometric Titration of Calcium
4 pages (1000 words) , Lab Report
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...acid-base reactions. In this type of reaction, the metal ion accepts the extra electron from the molecule which donates the electron to form a covalent bond. Introduction In this experiment, the searchers are trying to perform a complex formation reaction for analytical purposes. The main aim of this titration reaction is to determine the presence of calcium ions in a titrant by a method referred to as titrimetric. The chemists use the common titrant referred to as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, (EDTA). This acid is commonly used in complex formation reactions because of its ability to form complexes with most metal ions because of its tetrabasic form. The EDTA acid... Practical Application...
Acid base case study
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...Acid-Base Case Study Angelique Harris Grand Canyon Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators NUR-641E April 18, Acid-Base Case Study The acid base disturbance in this patient is caused by a condition known as metabolic alkalosis. Consequently, this state occurs when the PH of the blood in arteries rise above 7.45 which is the maximum PH. The pH above 7.5 is termed as alkalemic. A general decline in hydrogen ion concentration or a surplus of base leads to alkalosis. Considering the case study, the pathophysiology of metabolic alkalosis is common and...
Acid base balance
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...Acid Base Balance Case Study A diagnosis involves identifying the cause and nature of anything. It is mostly used in the determination of symptoms, symptom causes, solutions to issues, and mitigation of problems (De Mendonca, 2004). The patient was suffering from a disease known as the respiratory acidosis. This is so because the physical diagnosis of the patient showed that the man had a systematic blood pressure of 85 mm Hg/50 mm Hg. His heart rate was 175 beats per minute, his respiration was at the rate of 32 breaths per minute, and his temperature was 37.3 degrees Celcius. The arterial blood diagnosis revealed a pH of 7.23, pCO2 of 69mm Hg, O2...
The Acid Base Disturbance
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...Acid-Base Case Study Angelique Harris Grand Canyon Advanced Pathophysiology and Pharmacology for Nurse Educators NUR-641E April 18, Acid-Base Case Study The acid base disturbance in this patient is caused by a condition known as metabolic alkalosis. Consequently, this state occurs when the PH of the blood in arteries rise above 7.45 which is the maximum PH. The pH above 7.5 is termed as alkalemic. A general decline in hydrogen ion concentration or a surplus of base leads to alkalosis. Considering the case study, the pathophysiology of metabolic alkalosis is common and...
Buffer, acid and base
4 pages (1000 words) , Research Paper
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...acidic. The solutions whose pH is greater than 7 are alkaline or basic in nature while the solutions having less than 7 pH are acidic in nature. pH scale is based from 0 to 14 numbers and the distilled water has pH of 7. Our everyday foods should have 7 pH; it can be a little up or down. A strong battery acid has less than one pH while a strong base has... =-log[OH-] pH + pOH=14 In the human body, all fluids are aqueous. It is a solvent that is only present in water. That means all body fluids have pH value either narrow or wide range. Scientific researches claim that the pH range of blood should be slightly basic i.e. from 7.35-7.45. If the range sees drastic change, it is very likely...
Acid base balance case study
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...Acid base balance case study A diagnosis involves identifying the cause and nature of anything. It is mostly used in the determination of symptoms symptom cause, solutions to issues, and mitigations for problems (De Mendonca, 2004). The patient was suffering from a disease known as the respiratory acidosis. This is so because the physical diagnosis of the patient showed out that the man had a systematic blood pressure of 85 mm Hg/50 mm Hg. His heart rate was 175 beats per minute, his respiratory was at the rate of 32 breaths per minute, and his temperature was 37.3 degrees Celcius. The arterial blood diagnosis revealed a pH of 7.23, pCO2 of 69mm Hg, O2...
Practical: Free radical polymerisation; Bulk polymerisation of Vinyl Monomers
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...titration of hydrochloric acid not only lowered the pH of the solution but also decreased the viscosity. When the pH had reached pH 2 after 8 titrations of 1mL hydrochloric acid, viscosity was noted to be 10.4 cP. Upon increasing the pH with the use of sodium hydroxide, the viscosity of sodium polyacrylic acid solution also increased from its original viscosity after acid titration. After a series of titrations of sodium hydroxide, the solution reached a basic level of pH 7 and evinced a viscosity level of 106.1 cP. This viscosity is higher than the original viscosity of the solution prior to titration of acid and base of 19.2 cP. Linear versus Cross-linked Polymers... Practical: Free Radical...
Aspirin
14 pages (3500 words) , Download 10 , Coursework
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...titration. This relies on the principles behind the general chemical reaction acid + base = salt + water, because aspirin neutralises a cold solution of sodium hydroxide. This again can be measured using the indicator phenolphthalein. The final method is known as colourimetry, and relies on the principle that the colour we see is an object reflecting certain wavelengths of light. In this case, differing concentrations of a chemical compound will cause different amounts of a certain wavelength of light to be reflected. By measuring the light reflected using a colourimeter, we can see how much of the acetylsalicylic acid is present in each compound. Aims 1) (AS) Which brand... and reacting this...
Pearson's hard soft acid base theory in bioinorganic
4 pages (1000 words) , Term Paper
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...acid/base theory in bioinorganic chemistry Introduction: Pearson’s hard and soft acids and bases theory is a concept that explains reactions mechanisms and the stability of compounds. It designates an element or compound as being ‘hard’, ‘soft’ or borderline depending on the polarizability and charge condition. Soft elements and ligands are highly polarizable and have small charge states. Hard elements and ligands are weakly polarized and have higher charge states (Jolly). Borderline elements and ligands have polarizabilities and charge states that are intermediate to hard and soft elements and ligands. The theory implies that soft acids tend to bind to soft... ?Application of Pearson’s hard and soft...
Chemistry
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...acid-base pH titration, plot a suitable graph and determine the concentration of the ethanoic acid solution. Introduction. According to Brønsted-Lowry theory an acid can be defined as a "proton donor" while a base can be called a "proton acceptor." Acids are in most cases divided into groups such as "strong" and "weak." One measure of the most commonly used measure of acid strength is acid-dissociation equilibrium constant, Ka, for that particular acid (Atkins and Paula 2001, Pg. 45). A strong acid has a big Ka value. For example hydrochloric acid HCl: Ka = 1 x 103 While a weak... Lab report: Ionic equilibria (Word count: 1456) Laboratory report: Ionic equilibria Aim of the experiment. To carry out an...
Paraphrasing
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...titration. Next, the molarity was calculated using the formula given below: Procedure: First Part: To find the molarity of NaOH The first part of the experiment was to find the molarity of NaOH. It was done by titrating it with KHP. 1.0 g of KHP was measured and then it was dissolved in 70-75 mL distilled water. As the next step, 1 to 5 drops of phenolphthalein was added to the solution. It was done to ensure the change in color after addition of base (NaOH). Next, KHP was dissolved as much as possible in order to get accurate results. After that, the base was dripped into the acid using a buret which was filled with NaOH up to a certain... Introduction: In this experiment, the researcher aimed to know...
Buffers and Buffer Capacity
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...titration. And finally V is the base volume. Reagents 50mM NaOH titrant 9.0mM HCl solution 3.0mM citric acid solution water Apparatus Pipets Flasks Precaution The aqueous solutions are prepared on the exact date of practical. Procedure First, 100 mls of NaOH solution is prepared from o.1M of the available NaOH titrant. Secondly, HCl solution is prepared by the dilution of a 90.0 mM HCl solution present from the TA. Finally, the concentration of 3.0mM of citric acid solution is prepared by weighing out... Buffer and Buffer Capa Experiment Introduction A buffer is a chemical solution used to maintain and prevent rapid changes that might occur to pH in solutions. Similarly, a buffer is a mixture of...
The Krebs Cycle And Its relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism & Acid base balance
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...Acid base balance All cells are required to generate energy for survival, be it a eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell. The process involved in the production of cellular energy was defined by Hans A. Krebs in the year 1937. He proposed that the production of cellular energy is association with a particular metabolic pathway in the cells. This is called the Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle which defines the oxidation of carbohydrates in animal tissues. Consequent to this finding it was later found that the acetyl derivation (a compound produced during fat degradation) has identical properties to the compound produced when... The Krebs cycle and its relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism & Acid...
Lab practical - report & questions sheet
1 pages (250 words) , Lab Report
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...Acid-Base Practical A sodium hydroxide solution is standardised by titrating 0.8592 g of a primary standard potassium hydrogen phthalate (Mr = 204.2 g mol-1) to a phenolphthalein endpoint, requiring 32.70 mL. Determine the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Solution: A balanced chemical reaction between potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium hydroxide is depicted as follows: KHC8H4O4 + NaOH NaKC8H4O4 + H2O Mole ratio of potassium hydrogen phthalate: sodium hydroxide = 1:1 Moles of potassium hydrogen phthalate that reacted with NaOH = mass of KHC8H4O4/ Mr = 0.8592 g/204.2 g mol-1 = 4.2 × 10^-3 mol Using number of moles... PJ1100 LAB RE-ASSESSMENT...
With reference to acid-base balance explore the role of the respiratory system in maintaining blood pH
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...Acid-base balance is predominantly maintained through several physiologic methods that might bedistress by occurrences such as severe ailments or injury. To maintain pH amid the normal scale of around 7.35-7.45, the development of acidic surroundings must be either cushioned or excreted. The instruction of acid-base equilibrium remains overseen by three critical processes, namely: buffer system, respiratory, and renal methods. The paper investigates the role of the lungs in overseeing stabilization of blood pH. Carbon dioxide (CO2) derives from typical body metabolic processes. Disturbances in the processes impacts on CO2 intensities and HCO3- are expected to produce acid-base... ). The...
Orange Juice Titration
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...Acid) Introduction Titration is a method to determine the precise endpoint of a complex reaction and thereby the precise quantity of the reactant in the titration flask. Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant. The process of titration is also known as volumetric analysis of a chemical. A reagent (also known as the titrant) of a known concentration is reacted with a solution of the reactant whose concentration is not known [1]. Orange juice contains ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid ascorbic acid (also known as Vitamin C) is antioxidant... 98% accuracy. An air tight container which is opaque...
Observing Science Teaching in a Secondary School
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...titration processes, models, and contents of various acids, bases, and salts that marked the epitome of the topic, acids, bases, and salts (Roanoke Valley Governors School, n.y, p.1). Works Cited Roanoke Valley Governors School n.y, Notes on Acids and Bases Viewed 12 April 2012, ... Observing Science Teaching in a Secondary School There is learning of chemistry that is a science in all levels of education. The topic of acid, bases, and salts in chemistry uses specific language, theories, and concepts, becomes more complex with the advancement in students education levels. This paper will address the progression of the topic acid, bases, and salts from primary school, through secondary school and beyond....
Biochemistry lab report
10 pages (2500 words) , Lab Report
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...base was added in smaller volumes. Weak acid strong base: The above procedure was repeated with acetic acid and NaOH. To study the pH behaviour of carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, 25cm3 of 0.05M sodium carbonate solution was titrated against 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. Result: Table 1: Volumetric titrations of 0.1 M Glycine with HCl or NaOH and pH Volume of HCl added (cm3) pH Volume of HCl added (cm3) pH 0.5 5.5 1.0 5.3 1.5 5 2.0 5 2.5 4.7 3.0 4.5 3.5 4.5 4.0 4.4 4.5 4.4 5.0 4.3 5.5 4.3 6.0 4.3 6.5 4.3 7.0 4.2 7.5 4.2 8.0 4.1 8.5 4.1 9.0 4.1 9.5... Practical Chromatographic Separation of amino acids Introduction Different proteins in the body carry out specific biological processes in the...
Chemical equations, enthalpy changes and chemical equilibrium, acid, base and pH, and chemical reactions, chirality, simple organic functional groups and their reactions
3 pages (750 words) , Assignment
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...acid 3. Alcohol 4. Alkene (b)  Compound B, shown in Figure 2, is produced in the body from Compound A. Compound B works on several receptors in the brain. Figure 2 Compound B. Identify two different types of intermolecular interactions which could be involved in binding Compound B to a target receptor in the brain. State which functional... Lecturer “Organic Chemistry” (a)  Compound A, shown in Figure is a biologically important molecule that is produced naturally by many plants and animals. It is also used as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease. This molecule contains a chiral carbon atom. Figure 1 Compound A. 1. Explain what the terms chiral atom and chiral molecule mean. Chiral atom is an atom (most...
Acid rain
1 pages (250 words) , Assignment
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...ACID RAIN Acid Rain Acid rain is defined by Kumar as a term used to de "Any precipitation which has a value less than 5.6,the PH of uncontaminated water".1 In most cases, Kumar notes that acid rain falls under a PH of between 5.6 and 3.5.2 It is important to note that evidence of acidic precipitation appears after a few days and long distances from the origin. Acid rain can be prevented through a number of ways in future. According to Casper, acid rain can be prevented in future is by switching to sources of energy that emit low levels of carbon.3 Combustion of fossil...
Acid rain
4 pages (1000 words) , Research Paper
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...Acid Rain People’s economic activity in the 20th century caused serious pollution of the planet with various waste products. The air basin, water, and soil in the areas of large industrial centers often contain toxic substances that significantly exceed the permissible level. In the recent decades, environmental contamination and the breakouts of related diseases have become more common. To describe this phenomenon, experts and media began to use the term “environmental crisis” (Mangun and Henning xii). The global environmental crisis is the result of the complex industrial and agricultural activities of modern civilization. It appears to change the characteristics of the environment... The Month Acid...
Lab report on synthesizing salt/ titration/EDTA
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...titration with EDTA. (Fex(c2o4)y3x – 2y (iron complex salt) is an instance of a product from synthesis experiments involving iron three (Fe3+ and oxalate (C2O42-).In this experiment, (Fe3+ and oxalate (C2O42 were synthesized in order form the iron oxalate salt. The first step involved preparing iron ii) oxalate through addition of C2O42- to an acidic solution. The following was the equation governing the process. Fe2+.(aq)+ c2o(aq) FeC2O4(s) Iron iii oxalate ions were then formed from reacting, hydrogen peroxide, excess of the oxalate and an acid. From the reaction, iron iii oxalate... Introduction Synthesis of substances in the laboratory forms an inherent part of chemistry experiments. One of the...
Acid Ratios
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...acid test... Ratio Analysis for Thingamajigs and Things and WannaBees Jennifer Reed A ratio analysis is a tool used by employees to analyze a company’s financial statements (Investopedia, 2011). Ratios are calculated from the current year numbers and then compared to another source such as previous years, other companies, or the industry as a whole. This an important tool for evaluating a firm’s credibility. There are many ratios that are used to determine a ratio analysis. These are short-term solvency ratios, debt management ratios, asset management ratios, profitability ratios, and market value ratios. The two ratios that make up short-term solvency ratios are the current ratio and the quick ratio or...
Tranexamic Acid
8 pages (2000 words) , Essay
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...acid: Literature Review Tranexamic acid is a common hemostat used to arrest bleeding either during or after surgery and in other medical conditions that lead to blood loss. Tranexamic acid competitively inhibits the activation of plasminogen to plasmin thus preventing plasmin from degrading fibrin. This synthetic antifibrinolytic agent is derived from amino acid lysine. This paper examines various print and online literatures that provide information on the use of tranexamic acid. Literature on the use of tranexamic acid in orthopedic surgery and other Hemorrhagic conditions Guatam, Katyal, Yamin, and Singh argue... that tranexamic acid greatly decreases bleeding after...
Aristolochic Acid
11 pages (2750 words) , Essay
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...acid Aristolochic acid is made of a mixture of both aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II in a 1:1 ratio. Aristolochic acid is highly carcinogenic (cancer-causing) and nephrotoxic (harms the nephrons in the kidneys) [1]. Normally, this type of acid is found in several natural, botanical products sold commonly as 'traditional medicines' and in diet-supplements/weight loss preparations [11]. Urinary tract damage and other cancers have been linked to the intake of aristolochic acid as well as kidney damage and kidney failure which requires dialysis or worse, kidney transplantation [2]. Therefore, this makes aristolochic acid both nephrotoxic... and carcinogenic [11]. Aristolochic...
Biochemistry lab report
10 pages (2500 words) , Lab Report
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...Titration curve of glutamic acid against NaOH Fig 2: Titration curve of glutamic acid against HCl Dissociation of Glutamic acid can be represented as follows: (Picture from http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~cmg/Demo/analyzeAA/glutamic/glutamic.html) At low pH, below pH = 2.0, glutamic acid carries a net positive charge due to two carboxyl groups. After the addition of one equivalent of base, the lowest pKa group will have been deprotonated, giving no net charge on a glutamic acid. We do not see this in the graph since the readings started at pH 4 (Fig 1). The half-way point of this first wave of the titration will be at pH = pK1 = 3.2 and the pH of the first equivalence point... Biochemistry Laboratory...
Acid Rain
6 pages (1500 words) , Research Paper
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...acid rain. Moreover, nobody can justify injudicious industrialization and increase in number of vehicles based on the advantage of acid rain alone. To conclude, acid rain is caused by manmade activities alone or it is a manmade disaster rather than a natural disaster. It can negatively affect human life, life of plants, marine life, soil, buildings etc. Heavy industrialization, increase in emission level or the increased use of automobiles etc are the major reasons for acid rain. If not taken drastic measures to control industrial wastes or the emissions from vehicles, it is difficult for life forms to...
Acid Rain
7 pages (1750 words) , Research Proposal
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...Acid Rain: Definition, Impact and Potential Solutions Acid rain appears to be one of the most invasive problems facing contemporary society today. Acid rain occurs when, through a variety of industrial pollutants or natural phenomenon, the pH level of rainwater is changed from that of a basic property to one in which measurable changes in acidity are identified. Acid rain creates a wide variety of problems in the United States and abroad, however there are solutions to combat this growing international, ecological problem. This paper identifies the many causes of acid rain, highlights the impact of changing acidity levels in rainwater, and further proposes potential... HERE YOUR HERE YOUR HERE HERE Acid ...
Acid rain
4 pages (1000 words) , Research Paper
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...Acid Rain People’s economic activity in the 20th century caused serious pollution of the planet with various waste products. The air basin, water, and soil in the areas of large industrial centers often contain toxic substances that significantly exceed the permissible level. In the recent decades, environmental contamination and the breakouts of related diseases have become more common. To describe this phenomenon, experts and media began to use the term “environmental crisis” (Mangun and Henning xii). The global environmental crisis is the result of the complex industrial and agricultural activities of modern civilization. It appears to change the characteristics of the environment... The Month Acid...
Standardisation Of 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate Solution Using Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Ammonium Iron (Ii) Sulphate)
3 pages (750 words) , Lab Report
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...acid or a base is known as titration. This is the process which involves carefully adding one reactant to another while at the same time measuring how much is needed for the reaction to be complete. In this experiment, a base (Iron Ammonium Sulphate – FeSO4.(NH4)2SO4.6H2O Mr=392g/mole) will be added to 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate... STANDARDISATION OF 0.02MOLDM-3 POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE SOLUTION USING FERROUS AMMONIUM SULPHATE (AMMONIUM IRON (II) SULPHATE) By Instructor’s name September 7, 2016 Title Standardisation of 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate Solution using Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Ammonium Iron (II) Sulphate) Introduction The technique for determining the concentration of an acid...
Saponification of Triglycerides
6 pages (1500 words) , Download 1 , Lab Report
...acids linked to glycerol by fatty acyl esters (-O-CO-R). The fatty acids, straight-chain monocarboxylic acids, may be saturated (no C=C double bonds) or unsaturated. Fats and oils are trigylcerides. They are distinctive from the fact that at room temperature fats are solid and oils are liquid. In other words, liquid triglycerides are oils, while solid triglycerides are fats (Fessenden et al., 1998). Soapis produced by the saponification (hydrolysis) of a triglyceride. In this process the triglyceride is reacted with a strong base such as sodium or potassium hydroxide to produce glycerol... Saponification of Triglycerides I. Introduction Triglycerides, or triacylglycerols, are composed of three fatty...
Evidence base
1 pages (250 words) , Assignment
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...Base Evidence Base The policy that the surgical patient is the focus of perioperative nurses is one of the principles that guide nurses who take part in operating procedures. This explains why it is common practice for nurses who work within theatres to guarantee optimum and proficient care of the surgical patient by handling the overall nursing care in the operating room and facilitating the maintenance of a safe and comfortable environment. The above-mentioned policy is in line with the Association of perioperative Registered Nurses journal publication, which also suggests that operating room nurses should exhibit strong professional judgment, effective communication and critical... Evidence Base...
Nucleic acid hybridisation and Nucleic acid probes
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...Acid Hybridisation and Nucleic Acid Probes in Molecular Biology by Your Date The Utility of Nucleic Acid Hybridisation and Nucleic Acid Probes In Molecular Biology The unique property of nucleic acids to pair with each other through complementary base pairing is the lifeblood of genetic engineering. A single strand of DNA can pair up with another strand of DNA or RNA if its base pairs are complementary to those of the other strand, under the right conditions of temperature and pH. This phenomenon is called nucleic acid hybridisation. It is possible to exploit this mechanism for the detection of one... The Utility of Nucleic Acid...
Composition of acid rain
10 pages (2500 words) , Essay
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...acidic when the addition of acids into the surface waters, from atmospheric deposition and watershed processes, is much more than the capacity of watershed minerals and the drainage waters to neutralize the acidity. "The chemical conditions that define acidity are that acid anion concentrations (sulfate, nitrate, organic acids) are present in excess of concentrations of base cations (typically calcium or magnesium" (Likens, 2007). The aqueous ionization of the acids present in acid rain produces hydrogen ions H+ (aq). The processes are shown as under: H2SO4(aq) H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) HNO3(aq) H+(aq) + NO3-(aq) H2SO3(aq) H+(aq) + HSO3-(aq... Acid Rain Acid rain or acid precipitation is the...
Folic acid and b12
1 pages (250 words) , Assignment
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...based on the needs of the individuals, for instance if the white blood cells is very low, the individual may be required to be given folic acid rich in vitamin B. Work Cited Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 De Wals P, Tairou F, Van Allen MI, et al. (July 2007). "Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada". N. Engl. J. Med. 357 (2): 135–42. Steven W. Bailey1 and June E. Ayling, The extremely... Folic Acid Folic acid is very important in medical and nutritional studies and research. A lot of...
Methanol to acetic acid
4 pages (1000 words) , Assignment
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...acid and other novel technologies (Sunley, G., & Watson, D., 2000 p.294). The carbonylation of methanol in the production of acetic acid is capable of catalyzing at high rates with minimal water concentrations while using iridium or iodide based reactor. The onset of methanol carbonylation to acetic acid began in 1960 and was commercialized by the BASF. In this introductory approach, the production o acetic acid employed the use of cobalt catalyst that was in operational synergy with the iodide as a co-catalyst. This process was conducted at high pressures of about 680 bars as well as high temperatures of 250 degrees Celsius. The Baden Aniline and Soda Factory (BASF... ? Methanol to Acetic Acid Acetic...
Acid mine drainage
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...based on the Acid generating Potential and the Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) which is calculated directly by adding acid to a slurry of the spoil until the pH falls below some specified value (often pH 4.5) is expressed directly as meq (of acid added) per kg (of sample used). This analysis will help to pin point the source of acid mine, whether it is coming from the spoil heap or mine adit. This information can be used to devise remediation measures in order to reduce the damage on the environment-river pollution. Knowledge of acid mine drainage is not only significant to authorities tasked with environmental protection but also to consultancy agencies in acid mine... Table of contents...
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