Polyprotic acid
5 pages (1250 words)
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Phosphoric acid solution (0.1M) was titrated against ~0.2M NaOH solution in duplicate and titration curves of pH versus volume of NaOH (mL) were obtained. Both the titration curves displayed only 2 equivalence points instead of the expected 3 because the third equivalence point… An acid is defined, according to Brønsted and Lowry, as a compound which donates…
Acid rain
4 pages (1000 words)
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The air basin, water, and soil in the areas of large industrial centers often contain toxic substances that exceed the permissible level.In the recent decades, environmental contamination and the breakouts of related diseases have become more common.… In the recent decades, environmental contamination and the breakouts of related diseases have become more…
Acid rain
4 pages (1000 words)
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The air basin, water, and soil in the areas of large industrial centers often contain toxic substances that significantly exceed the permissible level. In the… It appears to change the characteristics of the environment on a planetary scale; therefore, the global ecological crisis is dangerous to the world’s population. Dealing with global environmental crisis…
Design Experiment Ecology - effect of acid rain on plat growth
3 pages (750 words)
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Individuals are in the race to accomplish their goals with least concern towards the environment and the consequences of the technologies. However, it is essential to understand and care for the… These substances are highly toxic to the living world and directly affects plant and other small organisms thereby, indirectly influence the proliferation of other…
Acid base titration
5 pages (1250 words)
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Hypothesis Phenolphthalein change of color from pink/purple to colorless signified a transformation of the solution’s nature from being basic to acidic, which was the reaction’s endpoint or neutrality point. … This is because in acidic, basic conditions phenolphthalein indicator usually indicates colorless and pink/purple colors respectively. Background theory…
Buffers and Buffer Capacity
4 pages (1000 words)
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Similarly, a buffer is a mixture of molecules releasing or binding H+ so as to maintain a moderately stable pH. The function of a buffer is to minimize the change in… Afar its buffering range, a buffer does not act to stabilize the pH of the solution (Phadungchewit, 13). Buffers are very essential to living organism. This is since most biochemical progressions…
Gas Laws and Soultions
1 pages (250 words)
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The strongest antacid on a single-dose basis is the CVS Brand, and the weakest is Rennies. The basis for this observation is the number of HCl millimoles that reacted when the antacids were added to the original HCl solution. Calculating for the number of millimoles that… At neutral pH, the color change is from yellow to blue (www.ch.ic.ac.uk, n.d.). 4. If…
Acid Rain
7 pages (1750 words)
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Acid rain occurs when, through a variety of industrial pollutants or natural phenomenon, the pH level of rainwater is changed from that of a basic property to one in which measurable… Most scientists concur that acid rain is produced by the combination of sulphur and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere which become oxidized and form acid (Spellman, 14). In…
Composition of acid rain
10 pages (2500 words)
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Acid rain is the "atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well as acidified fog and cloud water".It also refers to precipitation that is much more acidic than natural, unpolluted rain.… Acid rain is the "atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well…
Acid-Base Equilibria
1 pages (250 words)
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A burette was cleaned by rinsing with tap water. The water was then discarded and the buret was rinsed again with two 5 mL NaOH standard solution portions. The NaOH was discarded after each rinse. discarding the NaOH after each rinse.  9. The flask containing the… At half-equivalence point, half of the acetic acid has been converted or turned to acetate ion,…
Practical: Free radical polymerisation; Bulk polymerisation of Vinyl Monomers
3 pages (750 words)
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For every 1mL of HCl added, the pH of the solution and its viscosity was recorded as shown below. After pH 2 had been reached and the succeeding… However, accurate measurements of pH to viscosity were noted, most especially when the solutions reached pH 2 and pH 8. Beyond the titration curve, clearly, additional NaOH no longer interferes with the results…
Nucleic acid hybridisation and Nucleic acid probes
2 pages (500 words)
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The unique property of nucleic acids to pair with each other through complementary base pairing is the lifeblood of genetic engineering. A single strand of DNA can pair up with another strand of DNA or RNA if its base pairs are… For instance, if a DNA strand with a desired nucleotide sequence is to be detected from a mixture of many other…
Lab Titration for Acetic Acid in Vinegar
3 pages (750 words)
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If sodium hydroxide is used it should be noted that it tends to change its concentration over time. Moreover, it is not possible to prepare a sodium hydroxide solution of… Consequently, a bigger value for the weight percent of acetic acid in vinegar would have been received. F) Sodium hydroxide is an extremely powerful irritant. Contact with eyes causes…
Acid-Base Equilibria
1 pages (250 words)
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Suggest one source of error in an acid-base titration that could result in a molarity of acid that is too low and one source of error that could result in a molarity of acid that is too high, assuming that the titrant is a base. (10 points) One of the sources of error is… For instance, in case one has to be using 1M NaOH to titrate HCL and the 1M NaOH has…
Acid mine drainage
4 pages (1000 words)
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This paper sets out to examine the causes of acid mine drainage of a site under investigation-a long-abandoned coal mine. The analyses of the samples collected were done to ascertain the alleged source of the river contamination.… Authorities reported about the river passing by the spoil becoming orange. A comparison between the analysed levels of the pH of…
Acid mine drainage
4 pages (1000 words)
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The analyses of the samples collected were done to ascertain the alleged source of the river contamination. Authorities reported about the river passing by… This analysis will help to pin point the source of acid mine, whether it is coming from the spoil heap or mine adit. This information can be used to devise remediation measures in order to reduce the…
Charging of a 6-12V lead acid battery through the use of a solar panel
16 pages (4000 words)
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INTRODUCTION Introduction This introduction chapter will include the summary of the whole project. This chapter includes the synopsis of the project itself, including its aim and detailed objectives. Project Overview During the 1973 Middle East war, the world of energy disaster influenced the interest of developing countries in studying the solar system.…
Buffer, acid and base
4 pages (1000 words)
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pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The more the H+ ions the solution has, the lower the pH which means the solution… A strong battery acid has less than one pH while a strong base has such as drain cleaner has about 14 pH (Lynnette, 2009). On the other side pOH is a measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions, alkalinity or…
The acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of glycogen
6 pages (1500 words)
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Some important polysaccharides are starch, cellulose and glycogen. They are the polymers of the glucose. This is proved by the acid hydrolysis of these… Glycogen structure is similar to the amylopectin molecule and it is highly branched. The presence of the monomer compounds are identified by both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. The acid hydrolysis takes place…
Acid Mine Drainage
7 pages (1750 words)
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This paper exclusively looks into the process of Acid Mine Drainage, AMD; it defines the ADM and gives what necessitate the process as well as the factors that accelerate the process. … In such it discusses all the possible avenues with which AMD can emerge and gives in depth analysis with regard to the chemical composition, reaction and eventual production…
Thermochemistry Hess' law
5 pages (1250 words)
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Measuring and comparing these three reactions will help verifying Hess’s Law which states that the enthalpy change for any reaction is… Thermochemistry, which is a branch of thermodynamics deals with the assessment of heat energy transfer linked with chemical reactions in the lab. Learning about these heat energy transfer linked with three different chemical…
Lab practical - report & questions sheet
1 pages (250 words)
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1] A sodium hydroxide solution is standardised by titrating 0.8592 g of a primary standard potassium hydrogen phthalate (Mr = 204.2 g mol-1) to a phenolphthalein endpoint, requiring 32.70 mL. Determine the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. 2] The sodium hydroxide… x will not be found if Aluminium was replaced with an alkali metal because…
Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin)
8 pages (2000 words)
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Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) 13th December 2011 Introduction: Aspirin is the most widely used over the counter non-prescription drug in the United States. The drug is an effective analgesic that can reduce nerve pain, toothache and headache.… In the following experiment we embark to acquaint ourselves with a simple laboratory protocol for the…
Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin)
4 pages (1000 words)
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The drug is an effective analgesic that can reduce nerve pain, toothache and headache. It also acts as an antipyretic drug where it reduces fever and an anti-inflammatory agent capable… This procedure will use acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid as the acid catalyst of the reaction. A water- bath was prepared by filling half-way a 400mL beaker with water and…
Practical report and essay
6 pages (1500 words)
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The dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCP) is used as an oxidising agent to analyse ascorbic acid content in fruit juices. DCP is blue in color. The blue dye DCP is reduced by… This prevents interference of the proteins during analysis. In addition to this, metaphosphoric acid offers stability to ascorbic acid by preventing its decomposition in acidic…
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