StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu
Polyprotic acid
5 pages (1250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid Phosphoric acid solution (0.1M) was titrated against ~0.2M NaOH solution in duplicate and titration curves of pH versus volume of NaOH (mL) were obtained. Both the titration curves displayed only 2 equivalence points instead of the expected 3 because the third equivalence point usually gets obscured as Ka3 is close to Kw, the water dissociation constant. The pH values at the observed equivalence points were nearly 1.5 times lower than the calculated values which were made based on the assumption that the molarity of the titrant NaOH was 0.2 while it actually was 0.232. Introduction An acid is defined, according to Brønsted and Lowry, as a compound which donates one or more protons... Polyprotic...
Preview
Acid rain
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid rain” was introduced by Robert Smith, English engineer, in his book Air and Rain: The Beginning of a Chemical Climatology (1872) (Myers 267). Acid rains containing solutes of sulfuric and nitric acids cause serious damage to nature, because soil, water, vegetation, animals, and people become their victims. Gases that are released by burning of fossil fuels, among others, are composed from dioxins of sulfur and nitrogen. Depending on the composition of a certain fuel there may be more or less of these dioxins. Fuel oil and sour coal provide the most saturated sulfur dioxide emissions. Tons of sulfur dioxide emitted...
Preview
Acid rain
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid rain” was introduced by Robert Smith, English engineer, in his book Air and Rain: The Beginning of a Chemical Climatology (1872) (Myers 267). Acid rains containing solutes of sulfuric and nitric acids cause serious damage to nature, because soil, water, vegetation, animals, and people become their victims. Gases that are released by burning of fossil fuels, among others, are composed from dioxins of sulfur and nitrogen. Depending on the composition of a certain fuel there may be more or less of these dioxins. Fuel oil and sour coal provide the most saturated sulfur dioxide emissions. Tons of sulfur dioxide emitted...
Preview
Design Experiment Ecology - effect of acid rain on plat growth
3 pages (750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid concentration as compared to the plant treated with less concentration of acid and with tap water. Hence, survival of the plant is directly related to the concentration of the acid given to the plant. The process will also demonstrate the appropriate pH of water required for the plant growth. Materials Required Three healthy bean plants, tap water, measuring cylinder, spray bottles, pH paper strips (pH range of 2 to 8), concentrated H2SO4. Methods Mark the plants as A, B, C. Keeping C as control. Make two acidic solutions with two different concentrations, using water and H2SO4. pH is measured with the help of a pH... Design Experiment Ecology - effect of acid rain on plat growth" Introduction The ...
Preview
Acid base titration
5 pages (1250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid base titration Aim The experiment intended to ascertain concentrations of Dilute Hydrochloric acid and Dilute Sulphuric Acid solutions by conducting Acid-Base titrations. Hypothesis Phenolphthalein change of color from pink/purple to colorless signified a transformation of the solution’s nature from being basic to acidic, which was the reaction’s endpoint or neutrality point. This is because in acidic, basic conditions phenolphthalein indicator usually indicates colorless and pink/purple colors respectively. Background theory Acid –...
Preview
Buffers and Buffer Capacity
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution used to maintain and prevent rapid changes that might occur to pH in solutions. Similarly, a buffer is a mixture of molecules releasing or binding H+ so as to maintain a moderately stable pH. The function of a buffer is to minimize the change in pH whenever acid or base is added to a solution. There are several types of buffers and each particular buffer only stabilizes the pH of a solution within a particular range. One buffer might be operative within a range of pH 2 to pH 6, whereas another might be operative within a range of pH 10 to pH 12. Afar its buffering range, a buffer does not act to stabilize the pH... indicator showing how the buffered solution resists...
Preview
Gas Laws and Soultions
1 pages (250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid-Base Titration Exercise Your First Your Submitted The strongest antacid on a single-dose basis is the CVS Brand, and the weakest is Rennies. The basis for this observation is the number of HCl millimoles that reacted when the antacids were added to the original HCl solution. Calculating for the number of millimoles that reacted with HCl uses the formula n = M x V (“Acid-Base Titrations, n.d.). 2. On a by-weight basis, the strongest antacid is Mylanta, while the weakest is Tums. 3. The titration involves the reaction NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O. The pH of the solution when it becomes neutral is at pH 7.0. Bromothymol...
Preview
Acid Rain
7 pages (1750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid Rain: Definition, Impact and Potential Solutions Acid rain appears to be one of the most invasive problems facing contemporary society today. Acid rain occurs when, through a variety of industrial pollutants or natural phenomenon, the pH level of rainwater is changed from that of a basic property to one in which measurable changes in acidity are identified. Acid rain creates a wide variety of problems in the United States and abroad, however there are solutions to combat this growing international, ecological problem. This paper identifies the many causes of acid rain, highlights the impact of changing acidity levels in rainwater, and further proposes potential... HERE YOUR HERE YOUR HERE HERE Acid ...
Preview
Composition of acid rain
10 pages (2500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid Rain Acid rain or acid precipitation is the "atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well as acidified fog and cloud water" (Likens, 2007). It also refers to precipitation that is much more acidic than natural, unpolluted rain. Measurement of Acid Rain "The pH scale is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution and is determined by the hydrogen ion (H+) content" ("Measuring Acid Rain"). This scale ranges from 0 to 14, moving from strongly acid to strongly...
Preview
Practical: Free radical polymerisation; Bulk polymerisation of Vinyl Monomers
3 pages (750 words) , Download 1
...acid, hydrochloric acid, into the sodium polyacrylate solution. For every 1mL of HCl added, the pH of the solution and its viscosity was recorded as shown below. Table 1: Titration of HCl Acid into Sodium Polyacrylic Acid Solution Titrated HCl (mL) pH Viscosity 0mL(pre titration baseline) 4 19.2 cP 1mL 3 17.2 cP 2mL 3 12.9 cP 3mL 3(Orange) 10.7 cP 4mL 3(Grapefruit Pink) 10.4 cP 8mL 2 10.4 cP After pH 2 had been reached and the succeeding viscosity measured, sodium hydroxide was titrated into the solution 1ml at a time. While doing so, the resulting pH... Practical: Free Radical Polymerisation; Bulk Polymerisation of Vinyl Monomers Results The first part of the protocol required the titration of a known...
Preview
Acid-Base Equilibria
1 pages (250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid reacted with vinegar. 2. To determine the Ka or the equilibrium constant of the weak acid. Procedure 1. The Goggles were put on  2. The molarity of NaOH was obtained from the label on the bottle and this molarity was recorded on the data sheet. 3. A burette was cleaned by rinsing with tap water. The water was then discarded and the buret was rinsed again with two 5 mL NaOH standard solution portions. The NaOH was discarded after each rinse. discarding the NaOH after each rinse.  4... Vinegar Analysis Lab Report By and Partner May 7, Lab Objectives This laboratory experiment is conducted with the aimof achieving two objectives. These Objectives are: 1. To determine the concentration of weak acid re...
Preview
Nucleic acid hybridisation and Nucleic acid probes
2 pages (500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid strand from a mixture of many other strands. For instance, if a DNA strand with a desired nucleotide sequence is to be detected from a mixture of many other strands, an oligonucleotide containing a few complementary bases to the desired sequence can be prepared and attached to an anchor such as a membrane or a paper. When soaked in a solution having a mixture of many strands, the one, which is complementary to the oligonucleotide, will bind to it through complementary base pairing, also known as “zippering” (Lodish et al, 2004, p. 11). When double ...
Preview
Lab Titration for Acetic Acid in Vinegar
3 pages (750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid in Vinegar Purpose: The purpose of this work is to understand the concepts of titration and practically realise its technique in order to determine the concentration of an acetic acid in solution. STEP SUBSTRATE REAGENT RESULT INFERENCE Trial 1 “Yutaka” Japanese Rice Vinegar (5 mL) 0.5 M NaOH Initial NaOH reading (mL) Final NaOH reading (mL) Volume of NaOH used (mL) Average volume of NaOH used is 7.5 mL 0 7.5 7.5 Trial 2 0 7.6 7.6 Trial 3 0 7.4 7.4 Calculations: 1) The average number of mL of NaOH used for the 3 trials: V(NaOH) = = 7.5 mL 2) The normality of the vinegar: Na = ; N(Vinegar) = = 0.75 mol/L 3) The mass of the acetic acid in grams... December 04, Experiment # Titration for Acetic Acid ...
Preview
Charging of a 6-12V lead acid battery through the use of a solar panel
16 pages (4000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid battery. There is the sulphuric acid solution electrolyte, there is the lead dioxide cathode and lastly there is the lead anode - the one which is metallic and spongy. Because of these parts, lead acid battery is considered corrosive, and as a result authorities encourage the proper disposal of lead acid batteries because failure to do so presents a potential harm... ?INTRODUCTION Introduction This introduction chapter will include the summary of the whole project. This chapter includes the synopsis of the projectitself, including its aim and detailed objectives. Project Overview During the 1973 Middle East war, the world of energy disaster influenced the interest of developing countries in studying ...
Preview
Buffer, acid and base
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution. The more the H+ ions the solution has, the lower the pH which means the solution will be more acidic. The solutions whose pH is greater than 7 are alkaline or basic in nature while the solutions having less than 7 pH are acidic in nature. pH scale is based from 0 to 14 numbers and the distilled water has pH of 7. Our everyday foods should have 7 pH; it can be a little up or down. A strong battery acid has less than one pH while a strong base has... such as drain cleaner has about 14 pH (Lynnette, 2009). On the other side pOH is a measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions, alkalinity or OH-. It measures the basicity of a solution according to the...
Preview
Acid mine drainage
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution and the activity of different species of bacteria “ Thiobacillus ferrooxidans” to catalyse the reactions ten thousands times. 2.01 In more details, pyrite is oxidised by the oxygen molecules dissolved in water as shown in equation (1) below: FeS2 + 3.5O2 + H2O => Fe2+ + 2SO42- + 2H+ (1) This reaction produces acidity, hence the pH drops if buffer reactions are lacking. At first, when the pH is greater than 3... ?Table of contents ................................................................................................................................. Introduction........................................................................................................................... Main ...
Preview
Acid mine drainage
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid utilised in manufacturing. Main causes of AMD phenomena: 2.0 Understanding the geochemical reactions that generates AMD provides an insight into the three most important reagents that must present – Fe 3+, oxygen (O2) and water. Moreover, “runaway” AMD production needs Fe3+ dissolved in solution and the activity of different species of bacteria “ Thiobacillus ferrooxidans” to catalyse the reactions ten thousands times. 2.01 In more details, pyrite is oxidised by the oxygen molecules dissolved in water as shown in equation (1) below: FeS2 + 3.5O2 + H2O => Fe2+ + 2SO42- + 2H+ (1) This reaction produces acidity, hence the pH drops...
Preview
Acid-Base Equilibria
1 pages (250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acids solutions and explain why your values may differ from the true value. Show all calculations. (10 points). The number of moles of base needed to reach the endpoint:  0.1800 mmoles/mL*40 mL = 7.2 mmol OH-  Because HCL and NaOH react in a 1 to 1 ratio, it means that the number of moles of vinegar that reacted with the base.  7.2 mmol OH- x 1 H3O+ / 1 OH- = 7.2 mmol H3O+  The concentration of HCL  7.2 mmol H3O+ / 10.0 mL = 0.72 M  3. Calculate the molarity of the unknown acid stock solution. This requires accounting... Acid-base Titration I Maximum score: 90 points Partner: Lab Section (Day & Time): Attach your plots from the three titrations and answer all of the following questions. 1. Attach your...
Preview
The acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of glycogen
6 pages (1500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid under alkaline conditions. This is a basic redox reaction. (Miller, 1959). Oxidation step: Aldehyde Group --- carbonyl group Reduction step: 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid -- 3-amino,5-nitrosalicylic acid. The reducing sugars are easily measured by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. According to the Lambert Beer’s law, the concentration of the solution is directly proportional to its optical density. So if the absorbing index of a particular solution is known then the concentration of the given solution at that particular wavelength can be determined by measuring the optical density of the solution at that particular wavelength. Thus one molecule of the sugar is reduced... The acid and...
Preview
Acid Mine Drainage
7 pages (1750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acidity nature and leads to subsequent fall in the P.H. it must be noted that the reaction in stage 1 is very slow and that in the event that the acidity is neutralized by the presence of carbonate minerals, the P.H will never come below 3 and the situation remains stable thereon. In the contrary, then the Fe(OH)3 will never be stable and thus the F3+ will always remain in the solution (Younger, Banwart and Hedin 77). This can be shown in the reaction equation as shown below; Fe2+ + 0.5H2O + 0.25O2 => Fe3+ + OH- The F3+ can then remain viable to take part in the oxidation reaction... ? ACID MINE DRAINAGE 0 This paper exclusively looks into the process of Acid Mine Drainage, AMD; it defines the ADM and...
Preview
Thermochemistry Hess' law
5 pages (1250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid; reaction 3 involved reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solution. The use of Styrofoam calorimeter will help in measuring the heat of reactions for the three. Introduction... are as follows: Reaction 1: Reaction of solid sodium hydroxide with water.                         NaOH(s) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) + heat Reaction 2: The reaction of solid sodium hydroxide with dilute hydrochloric acid.                  NaOH(s) + H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O Reaction 3: The reaction of sodium hydroxide solution with dilute hydrochloric acid solution.       Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) →...
Preview
Lab practical - report & questions sheet
1 pages (250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid-Base Practical A sodium hydroxide solution is standardised by titrating 0.8592 g of a primary standard potassium hydrogen phthalate (Mr = 204.2 g mol-1) to a phenolphthalein endpoint, requiring 32.70 mL. Determine the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Solution: A balanced chemical reaction between potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium hydroxide is depicted as follows: KHC8H4O4 + NaOH NaKC8H4O4 + H2O Mole ratio of potassium hydrogen phthalate: sodium hydroxide = 1:1 Moles of potassium hydrogen phthalate that reacted with NaOH = mass of KHC8H4O4/ Mr = 0.8592 g/204.2 g mol-1 = 4.2 × 10^-3 mol Using number of moles... PJ1100 LAB RE-ASSESSMENT...
Preview
Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin)
8 pages (2000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution? Explain your answer. No, aspirin is not a phenol and will not form the violet color in the presence of ferric compound. Usually a positive test with 1% ferric chloride indicates the presence of a phenol. 3 ArOH + FeCl3 3. Aspirin can irritate the stomach. What is usually done in the formulation of the drug that reduces this side effect? The active agent in aspirin, salicylic acid contains the phenolic group and carboxylic acid that results in the compound being harsh to the stomach lining. A formulation of the drug with ester acetylsalicylic acid is a lesser irritant and does not irritate the stomach. The ester hydrolyzed in the small... ?Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) 13th...
Preview
Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin)
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution? Explain your answer. No, aspirin is not a phenol and will not form the violet color in the presence of ferric compound. Usually a positive test with 1% ferric chloride indicates the presence of a phenol. 3 ArOH + FeCl3 3. Aspirin can irritate the stomach. What is usually done in the formulation of the drug that reduces this side effect? The active agent in aspirin, salicylic acid contains the phenolic group and carboxylic acid that results in the compound being harsh to the stomach lining. A formulation of the drug with ester acetylsalicylic acid is a lesser irritant and does not irritate the stomach. The ester... Preparation of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) 13th December Introduction:...
Preview
Practical report and essay
6 pages (1500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid offers stability to ascorbic acid by preventing its decomposition in acidic solution. DCP solution being unstable is stored in dark bottle at 4ºC. DCP titrant has to be standardised using known concentration of vitamin C. This helps in accurate determination of the concentration of vitamin C in an unknown solution. Materials: Apparatus: Volumetric flasks, pipettes (5ml, 10ml), burettes, conical flasks (4), test tubes (5), beakers (3). Reagents and samples: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCP), 2- metaphosphoric acid... Estimation Of Ascorbic Acid In Fruit Juices Aim: To determine...
Preview
Design Experiment Ecology - Effect Of Acid Rain On Plat Growth
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid concentration as compared to the plant treated with less concentration of the acid. Hence, survival of the plant is directly related to the concentration of the acid given to the plant. The process will also demonstrate the appropriate pH of water required for the appropriate plant growth. Material Required Three healthy plants of the same type (say bean plants), water (tap water), measuring cylinder, pH paper strips to measure the pH range of 2 to 8; concentrated H2SO4. Method Take three potted bean plants. Mark them as A, B, C. Keep C as control. Make two acidic solutions with two different concentrations, using... ? "Design Experiment Ecology - effect of acid rain on plat growth" Aim To...
Preview
A STUDY OF AN UNKNOWN WEAK ACID
3 pages (750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...ACID INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this experiment is to identify a water-soluble compound known to be a weak acid withone or more ionizable protons. The unknown will be titrated with a previously standardized 0.1 F NaOH solution. The titration curve will be determined using a pH meter and glass indicating electrode. The unknown will be identified by characteristics of the titration curve. MATERIALS pH meter glass and reference (or combination electrode) from your TA electric stir plate and magnetic stir bar burette stand and clamp three 250 mL beakers burette and burette reading card wash bottle distilled water unknown weak acid REAGENTS pH 4 and pH 7 buffer poured... A STUDY OF AN UNKNOWN WEAK ACID...
Preview
Chemistry
6 pages (1500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid-base pH titration, plot a suitable graph and determine the concentration of the ethanoic acid solution. Introduction. According to Brønsted-Lowry theory an acid can be defined as a "proton donor" while a base can be called a "proton acceptor." Acids are in most cases divided into groups such as "strong" and "weak." One measure of the most commonly used measure of acid strength is acid-dissociation equilibrium constant, Ka, for that particular acid (Atkins and Paula 2001, Pg. 45). A strong acid has a big Ka value. For example hydrochloric acid HCl: Ka = 1 x 103 While a weak... Lab report: Ionic equilibria (Word count: 1456) Laboratory report: Ionic equilibria Aim of the experiment. To carry out an...
Preview
MATH PHASE 2
6 pages (1500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid solution Acid in the solution= 0.1x + (0.25)(5) = 0.1x + 1.25 Total liters of acid in solution= 0.15(x+5) 0.15x + 0.75=0.1x + 1.25 0.05x= 0.5 X=10... WEEK 4 Chapter 2 pages 120 - 163 in your textbook. The major difference between solving equations and solving inequalities is that when solving inequalities if the equation is multiplied by a number less than 0, the sign of inequality changes. The sign does not change when solving equations. For example, -x≥5 will become x≤-5. When the inequality sign is greater than, the inequality sign has an open mouth ≥. This is how I remember which symbol is greater than and which one is less than. Let x = no. of liters of a 10% a...
Preview
HPLC analysis of caffeine and benzoic acid in diet coke
7 pages (1750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution becomes liquefied, the solution got mixed in seven (7) percent of acetonitrile and ninety three (93) percent of aqueous that contained two (2) percent glacial acid and 0.5 percent ammonium acetate. Some amount of the solution was taken to mix with different diet cokes. The diet cokes included diet coke from a can, diet soda from the soda fountain, zero coke, diet green tea, and Tab coke. The outcomes of the experiment indicated that the diet coke from the can contained 131.925 ppm of caffeine and 150.45 Ppm of benzoic acid. The coke zero contained 100.500 ppm of caffeine and 123.875 of benzoic acid. Fountain soda contained... ? HPLC analysis of caffeine and benzoic acid in diet coke Introduction ...
Preview
Acid base and redox titration of vitamin C
7 pages (1750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Acid base and redox titration of vitamin C Introduction:This report seeks to determine the amount of vitamin C in a tablet. Using both redox reaction between vitamin C extract and iodine solution, and vitamin C extract and sodium hydroxide solution, the experiment will carry out titration reactions and apply stoichiometry concepts to determine the percentage of vitamin C in a tablet. The experiment will apply the concept of molality and stoichiometry to determine the number of moles and mass of vitamin C. Molarity is the concentration of solute particles in a solution. Measured in moles per unit volume, it shows the concentration in terms of the reacting units rather... Lab Partner: Lab Meeting Time:...
Preview
Introduction for lab report Iron in Soil and Coal
1 pages (250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid solution followed by a measurement of Spectrophotometer using silver diethyldithiocarbamate which is the reagent that forms colour. From the colour outcome, the concentration of iron in the coal or soil is determined (Paolo Desogus 8649–8662). Works Cited "Utilization of the chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover." Environmental Science Pollution Research International20(12) (2013): 8649–8662.... Introduction for lab report "Iron in Soil and Coal" Iron in Soil and Coal For the soil to achieve good plant growth, theanalysis of the general soil condition is essential in order to treat the soils for optimum results. The soils contain various physical and chemical...
Preview
Paraphrasing lab report
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid from oil of wintergreen utilizing a base-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction. The procedure involved the mixture and heating of sodium hydroxide and Methyl salicylate. Precipitation of salicylic acid was then carried out by introducing a sulfuric acid solution. The next procedure involved the purification of salicylic acid by recrystallization. The next involved the verification of the product to ensure that salicylic acid was produced instead of methyl salicylic. This was done by assessing the TLC and melting points of the product. These values would allow clear differentiation as they are both known and largely differ with methyl salicylate melting... This experiment was conducted to produce salicylic...
Preview
Measuring the concentration Of HCL by using gas dietitian tube
2 pages (500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid solution Distilled water Magnesium strip Flask (50cm3) Pressure sensor CLR Test tubes Pump Scissor Procedure Use 20cm3 of 1M HCL solution in the tube by diluting 0.5M with distilled water of ap20cm3. Using dietitian method as in step 1, prepare 10 cm3 solutions with concentrations of 1M. Use... Measuring the concentration Of HCL by using gas dietitian tube Introduction Factors that influence rates of responses incorporate change in fixation, temperature, surface range, or the expansion of an impetus. This examination will mainly examine the impact of focus change of the reactants upon the rate of response, utilizing hydrochloric corrosive and magnesium strip and additionally dietitian process. The...
Preview
Organic Synthesis Sterine, (S)-Phenyl-1-Propanol and 1, 4-Dyhydrobenzoic Acid
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid added. The solution was warmed to 300C and shaken until the chloride salt dissolved. The solution was transferred to 250ml beaker already containing... ORGANIC SYNTHESIS OF STERINE, (S)-PHENYL PROPANOL AND 4-DYHYDROBENZOIC ACID by Physical address ORGANIC SYNTHESIS OF STERINE, (S)-PHENYL-1-PROPANOL AND 1, 4-DYHYDROBENZOIC ACID Abstract This report explores suitable and safe experimental procedures followed when conducting a synthesis of styrene, (S)-Phenyl-1-propanal and 1, 4-Dihydrobenzoic acid. It also discusses the apparatus used in the preparation of the mentioned organic compounds. However, only two special apparatus have been represented diagrammatically. This includes a reaction flask of l...
Preview
Impact of a water Jet laboratory
6 pages (1500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid. This was possible by first determining the freezing point of pure lauric acid and lauric- benzoic mixture, then calculating the molality of solution and the moles of benzoic acid as shown below. OBJECTIVES In this experiment were... Impact of a Water jet laboratory Introduction Freezing also referred to as solidification is a transition phase at which a liquid changes into a solid whenever its temperature is lowered below its standard freezing point (Neil, 2008). It is worth noting that all liquid with the exception of liquid helium freeze whenever the temperature is reduced enough. In regard to liquid helium, it can only be solidified under pressure The (Computer-Based Laboratory, 2007). Research ...
Preview
RATEOFDECOMPOSITIONOFHYDROGENPEROXIDE
2 pages (500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution, 2M sulphuric acid solution, Fe3+ solution catalyst, Pipette. Procedure 25 mL of the ten‐volume hydrogen peroxide was dilute to about 200 ml with distilled water. A Dewar flask was rinsed with distilled water and then with a few mL of the dilute H2O2... Lab report: Rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was studied. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide at intervals of 5 minutes was recorded through the titration of the reaction mixture with standard potassium permanganate. Fe3+ acted as a catalyst. Graphs that complied with first order reaction were drawn when values of Vt against t, and ln Vt against t were drawn. From these graphs, it was possible to...
Preview
Aspirin
14 pages (3500 words) , Download 10
Premium+
...acid + base = salt + water, because aspirin neutralises a cold solution of sodium hydroxide. This again can be measured using the indicator phenolphthalein. The final method is known as colourimetry, and relies on the principle that the colour we see is an object reflecting certain wavelengths of light. In this case, differing concentrations of a chemical compound will cause different amounts of a certain wavelength of light to be reflected. By measuring the light reflected using a colourimeter, we can see how much of the acetylsalicylic acid is present in each compound. Aims 1) (AS) Which brand... of commercially available aspirin is the purest? To determine the purity of aspirin, we can use...
Preview
Chemical equations, enthalpy changes and chemical equilibrium, acid, base and pH, and chemical reactions, chirality, simple organic functional groups and their reactions
3 pages (750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid (HNO3) and formic acid (HCOOH) were each dissolved in equal volumes of water. State and explain which of the resulting solutions would have the higher pH. Your answer should include an explanation of the terms strong acid and weak acid and a definition of pH.  The solution formed by Nitric acid and water would have a higher pH than that formed by Formic... Lecturer “Organic Chemistry” (a)  Compound A, shown in Figure is a biologically important molecule that is produced naturally by many plants and animals. It is also used as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease. This molecule contains a chiral carbon atom. Figure 1 Compound A. 1. Explain what the terms chiral atom and chiral molecule mean. Chiral ...
Preview
The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity
3 pages (750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acidic conditions. I think that lowering the pH decreases the rate of reaction. Because catalase is a basic enzyme and its reactivity should be reduced in acidic conditions. Experiment Apparatus and Chemicals: Two 100 mL beakers, funnel, filter paper, 3 small potatoes, sodium hydroxide solution 50%, hydrogen peroxide, forceps, water, knife, 6 molar hydrochloric acid solution. Procedure: Cut potatoes into small cubes. Blend the potatoes... Effects of Low pH on the activity of enzyme Introduction: Potato contains enzyme “catalase” that can breakdown hydrogen peroxide molecule.I think that lowering the pH slows down the reactions. Catalase can decompose hydrogen peroxide into water and hydrogen gas....
Preview
Acids' Alkalis and PH
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution of NaOH is added to an aqueous solution of chlorine, the OH- ions will react with the H+ ions (strong acid-base reaction). This will lead to a decrease in the concentration of H+(aq). According to Le Chatelier's principle, the reaction will shift to the side that opposes this change. This means that the reaction will shift to the right. (d) the temperature of an equilibrium mixture of 1 (d) is decreased 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g... CHEMISTRY A ASSIGNMENT 4 DUE WEEK BEGINNING 12.05.08 For each of the equilibria given below: write the expression for Kc and calculate its units. (a) CO(g) + Br2(g) COBr2(g) [COBr2(g)] Kc = ...
Preview
Critical opinion about article
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid, showed lower rates of entrapment efficiency. Salicylic acid also did not form the same type of hydrogen bonds with the niosomal membrane, showing that the increased encapsulation efficiency seen in the p-hydroxyl benzoic acid solution was therefore related to the hydrogen bonding of the solute to the niosomal membrane. Figure 1 shows the changes in the UV absorption spectra of the solutions being studied which indicate the presence of hydrogen bonding between the niosomal coating and the p-hydroxyl... One very promising, though still controversial, method of improving the effectiveness of drug delivery is the use of a niosomal membrane, anon-ionic surfactant. They are especially useful for...
Preview
Solution
3 pages (750 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Solution (Content Marketing) Marketing Solution: Considering the development and advancements in the field of technology and the world of business, traditional marketing solutions cannot be considered as effective for today’s businesses. Hence organizations are trying to look for new and innovative ideas for marketing. Content marketing is one such solution (What is Content Marketing? 2014). “Content marketing is a marketing technique of creating and distributing valuable, relevant and consistent content to attract and acquire a clearly defined audience – with the objective of driving profitable customer action” (What is Content Marketing? 2014). Content marketing targets attracting... Marketing...
Preview
Solution
9 pages (2250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...Solution: The media is seen as a primary channel for offering diabetic education, but that is insufficient. Good... YOUR YOUR FULL YOUR INSTITUION OR SCHOOL YOUR Prevention: While 60% of deaths are related to achronic illness like diabetes, 70% of those are preventable. In fact, one dollar invested into prevention can save over eight dollars in diabetic expenses according to U.S clinical studies. By investing RMB 1 Yuan in health prevention, up to RMB 3 Yuan - 6 Yuan can be saved (Interview with Dr. Li, 2006). China's prevention program provides important lessons to individuals, community providers, health insurance, and research as one company has provided health management services for its employees ...
Preview
Biochemistry lab report
10 pages (2500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acids Introduction: Chromatographic separation technique employs a stationary phase on which the solute moves accompanied by the mobile phase (solvent). The separation of amino acids depends on the rate at which it moves while in simultaneous contact the two phases. This migration depends upon the molecular weight, shape and structure and polarity of the molecule to be separated. The ratio of the distance covered by the molecule to be separated and by the solvent is called the relative front and is used to identify an unknown amino acid. Since the amino acids are colorless, a ninhydrin... Biochemistry Laboratory Reports: A Practical Portfolio by SID # and # Practical Chromatographic Separation of amino...
Preview
High Protein Diets: Metabolic Poison for those with Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism
8 pages (2000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid” (Menkes, 1971). The ferric chloride test may be used to examine the patient's urine. “In inadequately preserved specimens, phenylpyruvic acid decomposes and the ferric chloride test becomes negative. The addition of a dilute solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine produces a copious yellow precipitate in both fresh and old specimens. For routine screening on infants a simple stick test (Phenistix) is available for use on wet diapers. Confirmatory evidence can be obtained by finding an elevation of plasma phenylalanine” (Menkes, 1971.) Maple syrup disease In maple syrup disease there is an “accumulation of three... ?Introduction A genetic disorder is caused by a defect in a persons DNA. The defect...
Preview
Chem 2
2 pages (500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid solution, of 40% strength. Which of the following statements is not true? a) The container should be labeled as both a corrosive substance and as an oxidizer. b) The material can only be stored on the deck of a cargo vessel. c) There is no need to placard a vehicle transporting this material. d) You are not transporting a reportable quantity. Answer: a) and b) are false. 5. If a material fits into more than one hazard class, which one would take precedence? a) Corrosive b) Oxidizer c) Flammable gas d) Pyrophoric Answer: c) Flammable gas 6. Which of the following statements is true? a) An accident... Multiple choice questions may have more than one correct answer. Indicate all that apply...
Preview
Acid rain
1 pages (250 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...ACID RAIN Acid Rain Acid rain is defined by Kumar as a term used to de "Any precipitation which has a value less than 5.6,the PH of uncontaminated water".1 In most cases, Kumar notes that acid rain falls under a PH of between 5.6 and 3.5.2 It is important to note that evidence of acidic precipitation appears after a few days and long distances from the origin. Acid rain can be prevented through a number of ways in future. According to Casper, acid rain can be prevented in future is by switching to sources of energy that emit low levels of carbon.3 Combustion of fossil...
Preview
DIASTEREOSELECTIVE ALDOL CONDENSATION USING A CHIRAL OXAZOLIDINONE AUXILIARY: (2S*,3S*)-3-HYDROXY-3- PHENYL-2-METHYLPROPANOIC ACID
2 pages (500 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...solution. This solution is then stirred for a period of 1hr, the septum is removed, and a solution of 12.6g of sodium sulfite and 75mL of water that is distilled are added to the solution in the flask. A rotary evaporator removes any excess tetrahydrofuran at temperatures of between 25 and 300 C. The dicholoromehtane is divided into three 100mL portions for the purposes of removing oxazolidinone auxiliary. The obtained aqueous solution is then cooled using an ice bath and its acidity increased to PH1 by adding a solution of aqueous hydrocholoric acid. Ethyl acetate is then divided into five 100mL portions for extracting the resultant solution that contains... 1. Procedure A. (S)-3...
Preview
Acid Ratios
4 pages (1000 words)
Nobody downloaded yet
...acid test... Ratio Analysis for Thingamajigs and Things and WannaBees Jennifer Reed A ratio analysis is a tool used by employees to analyze a company’s financial statements (Investopedia, 2011). Ratios are calculated from the current year numbers and then compared to another source such as previous years, other companies, or the industry as a whole. This an important tool for evaluating a firm’s credibility. There are many ratios that are used to determine a ratio analysis. These are short-term solvency ratios, debt management ratios, asset management ratios, profitability ratios, and market value ratios. The two ratios that make up short-term solvency ratios are the current ratio and the quick ratio or...
Preview
1 - 50 results of 500 items
Contact Us