Recent biotechnological approaches that have been used to enhance the yield and diversity of amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics
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...amino acids and growth factors etc... ? Recent biotechnological advancements The process of production and enrichment of biological materials for the welfare of the mankind from the naturally available sources is the main task of biotechnology. Biotechnology combines the life science with the technology to derive many useful products. The knowledge of science mixed with the engineering concepts lead to the production of biotechnological products. Biotechnology is a part of our life. In every day activity we use many biotechnological products such as bread, curd, yoghurt, cheese, rice cakes, wine, beer etc., Nowadays we can see many products being advertised as being enriched with vitamins, minerals,...
Investigating the effects of mutation on active site amino acids of beta-lactamase
11 pages (2750 words) , Lab Report
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...?Intro The synthesis of altered proteins with new binding sited, designed to target specific groups of molecules, is one of the major tasks of modernprotein engineering. Significant efforts in this area were highlighted by limitations of natural proteins in both biomedical and analytical applications. Generally, there are two ways of producing modified proteins. Usually, turns and loops are the first areas of interest while considering engineering of new binding sites. Modifications are done either by creating new binding sites introducing random mutations on the surface of strands, helices or randomization of already existing regions that connect secondary structures. Using these two... The synthesis...
Summary of Molecule bonds, Amino and Nucleic Acids, Proteins
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...Amino and Nucleic Acids, and Proteins Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds result from an attraction between atoms and can result in molecules (hence the alternate use of the word “molecular” in the term). The bond will not be broken until a sufficient transfer of energy occurs. There are several types of chemical bonds that differ in aspects such as the strength of the bond. Strong bonds include covalent (electron sharing) and ionic (positive to negative attraction and vice versa), while some weaker types are dipole-dipole interactions (intermolecular, or between molecules), London dispersion force (weak quantum effect), and hydrogen bonding (covalent... Here Here Here Here Summary of Molecular Bonds, Amino...
Protein and Amino Acid
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...Amino Acid Proteins are the building blocks of human body and are very essential nutrient. Amino acids and the basic units of proteins and are called the building blocks of protein. In general proteins are obtained food sources, such as meats and other animal products such as eggs, cheese and milk. Proteins are broken down into simpler constituents to make it easily for digestion. Amino acids are critical for the proper functioning of the body. Some of the common functions of proteins include repairing muscles, organs, nails, hair, skin, ligaments, and glands (NutraSanus, n.pag, 2004). A lack of amino acids in daily diet will have a greater impact on all cellular development, respiration... Protein and...
How the 22nd amino acid is produced
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...Amino acid. Introduction The discovery of the extra amino acid in the history of science has sparked heated debate on the validity of the long standing central dogma that argued that the number of amino acids is discrete at twenty, courtesy of the molecular and cell biologists. The new Amino acid is termed as pyrrolysine; it’s synthesized through a chemical reaction that requires a total of three steps. Its precursor molecule is another amino acid called lysine. The process by which the cells make the amino acids has been along time paradox as the Ohio state University under the stewardship of their able scientists endeavored to identify the process of the amino acid synthesis... ? Running head: Amino...
The Triplet Genetic Code
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...amino acids (codons) within the standardized codon arrangement table is additionally non-unsystematic. The theories are central to the evolution and the code’s origin concepts. The commonly used theory is the Stereochemical Theory that states that codon tasks are influenced by the physiochemical similarities amongst anticodons (cognate codons) and amino acids. The second theory is the Coevolution Theory that asserts that amino acids biosynthesis conduits and the code structure coevolved. The third... is the "error minimization theory" that posits that the selectiveness to reduce the negative effects of point mutations and errors of translation comprised a big part of the evolution of the...
The Role of Amino Acid R-groups to the Structure and Function of Ligand-Protein Complexes
4 pages (1000 words) , Lab Report
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...Amino Acid R-groups to the Structure and Function of Ligand-Protein Complexes This paper aims at discussing the molecular structure, the Rf and the binding of various amino acids. The paper discusses also the molecular formula. Introduction There are 20 basic amino acids, which have their molecular structure and bonding. Their rate to front also differs and varies from one amino acid to another. The best procedure used in differentiating amino acids is by determining their rate to front, which is mainly established through the process of chromatography. This process is also distinguished by the intensity of colors on the chromatogram. 1. Amino acid names, molecular weights, Rf values... The Role of...
Article Review(Mirror Molecules)
5 pages (1250 words) , Essay
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...amino acids as the rule in the general make-up of protein in all living organisms. The new discoveries brought about by the most unlikely occurrences have challenged our understanding of right-handed amino acids and their role in the biological composition of some species, and most importantly, of the human physiology. As the building blocks of protein, left-handed amino acids... ? Section: of Publication: Scientific American Publication: May, of Article: Mirror Molecules Page Numbers of Article: 78-81 Name of the Author: Sarah Everts Synopsis of the Article The article “Mirror Molecules” by Sarah Everts discusses the recent developments in the scientific understanding of the dominance of left-handed...
The Role of Amino Acid R-groups to the Structure and Function of Ligand-Protein Complexes
4 pages (1000 words) , Lab Report
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...Amino Acid R-groups to the Structure and Function of Ligand-Protein Complexes This paper aims at discussing the molecular structure, the Rf and the binding of various amino acids. The paper discusses also the molecular formula. Introduction There are 20 basic amino acids, which have their molecular structure and bonding. Their rate to front also differs and varies from one amino acid to another. The best procedure used in differentiating amino acids is by determining their rate to front, which is mainly established through the process of chromatography. This process is also distinguished by the intensity of colors on the chromatogram. 1. Amino acid names, molecular weights, Rf values... The Role of...
Protein
5 pages (1250 words) , Essay
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...amino acids, acids that are necessary for life to function as we know it. While it is true that our bodies can make amino acids by itself, it cannot make all of the amino acids that are needed for life, and must get some of them from the food it consumes. These amino acids thus come from proteins, which should be staples in everybody’s diet. Proteins can come from many different varieties of food, such as meat, egg, grains, and other diary products. These foods are essential to our diet as it is vital to our existence to take these proteins into our bodies so we can use the amino acids they are made up of. Body... Intro: It seems most people today are overly concerned about how they look, how much they...
The Roles of Amino Acid R-groups in the Structures and Functions of Transmembrane Ion Channels
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...Amino Acid R-groups in the Structures and Functions of Transmembrane Ion Channels Introduction Amino acids refer to molecules with a group called amine. Each of these groups also contains two other groups known as carboxylic acid and the other side-chain connected to each of the amino acid. They comprise of elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. All amino acids have two groups, i.e., carboxyl written as COOH and amino NH2. The examples of amino acids and their molecular weights: Alanine with a molecular weight of 71.09 and solubility of 16.65, glutamine having a molecular weight of 128.14 and solubility of 3.53, Asparagine with 115.09 molecular weight, Histidine having... The Roles of...
The bovine protein
1 pages (250 words) , Book Report/Review
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...Amino acids and proteins are integral in maintaining the mood of a person and their mental health. Understanding the fact, that lack of a diverse diet can lead to problems regarding the mood of the person at that particular moment. People do not realize that it is appropriate to eat diverse foods; for not only the taste but also that, it offers an alley of important body requirements. When a diet is manipulated, the blood measures are also affected this thus leads to the need to eat several foods. This is what brings about cravings and it is important for the person to take the required amino acids or proteins. Lack of Amino acids and proteins brings stress into the body and the person just...
High Protein Diets: Metabolic Poison for those with Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism
8 pages (2000 words) , Essay
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...Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins but a diet high in protein can also lead to other problems like nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis. Inborn errors of metabolism are hereditary diseases in which the cellular metabolism is abnormal due to an inherited defect in an enzyme. Inborn errors of metabolism usually manifest in the neonate or an infant but can even be first seen in an adult. Abnormalities in the production or metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates etc are usually due to a single gene defect... ?Introduction A genetic disorder is caused by a defect in a persons DNA. The defect can vary from a single gene mutation to an addition or deletion of the total chromosome or set of chromosomes....
Describe the roles of amino acid R-groups to the transmembrane channels that allow passage of molecules and ions across lipid bilayers.
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...Amino Acids in Transport of Molecules and Ions The R group protein is identified as amino acid side chain, which holds an amine operational group thus producing a basic solution because of the additional amine group that remains un-neutralized by the acid group. The most common R-group protein is arginine while others that also contain a basic side chain include lysine and histidine (Berg, Tymoczko and Stryer 46). The nature of the amino acid R groups that read out the structure-function relations of peptides and proteins. The hydrophobic amino acids are met in the inside of proteins guarded against straight contact with water. On the other hand, the hydrophilic amino acids... Roles of R-Group Amino...
Thin Layer Chromatography
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...amino acids and their order figured out by the resemblance of the unknown mixtures and the identified amino acids are as shown below; M1 and M2 are mixtures of the known reference amino acids M1 consists of three reference amino acids: Spot 1 Lysine Spot 2 Aspartic Spot 3 Phenylalanine M2 consists of three reference amino acids: Spot 1 Glycine Spot 2 praline Spot 3 Tryptophan B) Amino acids structures list: Aspartic acid (asp) Polar Glycine (gly) Non polar Leucine (leu) Non polar Lysine HCl (lys) Polar Phenylalanine (phe) Non polar Proline (pro) Non polar Tryptophan (trp... Nina Assignment Disccussion Based on the outcome that i found on the plate, the space travelled by the familiar...
Protein Research
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...amino acids that are required by the body cells for structural formation, functioning and regulation of body tissues and organs( Whitford,2005). Every protein in the body has a unique role ranging from structural support and defense to bodily movement. Proteins are classified according to their body function (Whitford, 2005). Antibodies are specialized proteins that protect the body from foreign invaders in the blood stream, and they protect the body against bacteria and viruses by immobilizing antibodies that are immediately destroyed... Protein Research Protein Research Proteins are complex molecules in the body that perform many vital operations in the body cells. Proteins are made up of micro-amino...
'How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body'
4 pages (1000 words) , Download 3 , Essay
...amino acids, which are the building blocks. The body only has the potential to absorb amino acids, explaining why the body embarks on the digestive process. After entry of proteins in the mouth, the change that takes place in the stomach involves the mechanical breakage of solid proteins. After leaving the stomach, food goes through... of protein continues in the small intestines because pepsin activity of breaking down proteins is partial. The resulting peptides need further digestion in their constitute amino acids that can be absorbed by the small intestines DNA (The Open University 2004, p. 143). In the case of infants, the enzyme rennin is present in the...
Amino Acide
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...amino acid protection in synthesizing small peptides: Production of peptides in known as "peptide synthesis", in organic chemistry. However, these organic compounds contain multiple amino acids which are bound together via "peptide" bonds; also known as amide bonds. Synthesis of peptides involves the coupling of carboxyl group or C-terminus of one amino acid to the amino group or N-terminus of another amino acid. In this process unintended reactions are expected, hence there is always a requirement of protecting groups. Chemical synthesis of peptide starts at the C-terminus of the peptide and ends at the N-terminus. The protecting groups are used to prevent polymerization of amino acids... Importance of...
Cell Biology Essay
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...amino acid _____. 12. sequence c) On heating, a protein will become _____. 4. denatured d) On removal of urea, an unfolded protein can become _____. 11. renatured e) The final folded conformation adopted by a protein is that of its ____ energy. 8. lowest f) The sheet are the most common folding motifs because they are formedhelix and the by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the _____. 10... . polypeptide backbone g) Any substance that will bind to a protein is known as its _____. 13. side chains h) Enzymes bind substrates at their _______. 1. active site i) Enzymes bind regulators at their ______. 2. allosteric site j) Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by providing...
Genes
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...amino acids on a given protein, that is, the genetic information on the DNA molecule provides the basis for the synthesis of proteins in a given organism. Starr and Taggart (2006) point out that all living organisms... ? About Genes About Genes DNA is the basic form in which instructions and information on the characteristics of any organism is stored in the cells. This information and instructions for the synthesis of the proteins is stored in DNA molecule in form of a sequence of nucleotides, including Adenine, Thymine, guanine and cytosine; commonly abbreviated as A, T, G and C respectively, in a given order. The sequence of these four nucleotide bases on a DNA molecule determine the sequence of amino ...
Stanley Miller Paper
2 pages (500 words) , Download 1 , Coursework
...Amino acids (glycine, alanine and aspartic acid) and simple sugars (Barton, Briggs and Eisen) V. a) Reason for turbidity- this was due to colloidal silica from the glass flask. It may also have been as a result of some organic substances dissolving into the water. b) Reason for red colour-this was due to organic substances adsorbed... Miller–Urey experiment Review of Stanley Miller Paper I. What was Stanley Miller’s hypothesis? Stanley miller hypothesized that the earth’s atmosphere had conditions that favored the formation of organic molecules from inorganic precursors such water (H2O), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen (H2). II. What did the different parts of his system mimic a) The water in ...
Physiology and Function
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...Amino Acids The amino acids that the body cannot produce internally are essential amino acids. The body obtains these nutrients from proteins like meat, eggs, and beans are they are essential in a human being. In this case, dietary allocations of essential ammino acids increase muscle protein synthesis (Hulmi, Lockwood, & Stout, 2010). Metabolism Metabolism refers to the physical and chemical processes that take place... Psychology and Function Psychology and Function ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Biologists consider adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a high energy molecule that is the energy currency of life, which stores energy needed for all the body functions of a living organism. Physiological...
Protein Diet in Athletes
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...amino acid on performance are debatable. Protein Dietary Requirement for Athletes Protein requirement in athletes depends on various factors including the type of athlete, body weight, total energy intake, training status, intensity and duration of exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine, the Dietitians of Canada... Protein Diet in Athletes Affiliation Protein Diet in Athletes Introduction Proteins serve various functions in the body including building and repairing of muscle and tissues, synthesis of red blood cells, hormones and enzymes as well as energy production. In highly physical activities such as athletics, the adequacy of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and the role of the amino ...
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
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...amino acid metabolism Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal recessive inborn error due to defective activity of branched-chain -ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (Fauci et al, 2008: 2472; Leucine mildly to moderately elevated). This enzyme participates in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) namely leucine, isoleucine and valine. These amino acids have carbon arrangements not synthesized naturally by humans thus these are included in the list of essential amino acids. Because they are not fully metabolized, this leads to accumulation of these amino acids and their corresponding -ketoacids (Laygo, 2007:28). Branched-chain -ketoacid... MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE An inherited disorder of...
Protein
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...amino acid degradation that is used in the body. Alanine is the product of transamination of pyruvate that happens in the muscles. From the muscles, the alanine is absorbed in the liver where the process of transamination occurs. The process occurs in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate. This cycle generates pyruvate which enters the gluconeogenesis cycle and glutamate which enters the urea cycle. The enzyme which is required for these processes to occur is alanine amino transferase. Q... Protein Q Describe the alanine-glucose cycle. The alanine-glucose cycle is responsible for the exchange of alanine molecule between skeletal muscles and liver. Like glutamine, alanine is a very important resultant of...
How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body
4 pages (1000 words) , Download 2 , Essay
...amino acids by various proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes are dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase. Since... ?How proteins in the diet are disassembled and then reassembled to form useful proteins in the body? Proteins are important constituent of our diet. Proteins can be obtained from meat, mutton, eggs, fish, cereals and many other things. Proteins in our body are first disassembled into its basic units by digestion. Disassembly of proteins is also called as proteolysis. First of all, proteins in our food are broken down into smaller units called as peptide chains. Many digestive enzymes include pepsin, trypsin, elastase and chymotrypsin. These peptides are further converted into amino...
"LOVE" Chapter 17 Questions
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...amino acids. The linear codon sequence and the linear amino acid have a 3-nucleotide to 1 amino acid correspondence. Question 6. The genetic code is redundant in the sense that some amino acids can be specified by more than one codon but Ambiguous in the sense that each codon specifies a particular amino acid and only that amino acid. Question 7.It just means that life appeared only once on Earth and was the basis of DNA into RNA. Question8. Transcription is the process in which DNA is converted into a complementary RNA and Just Before transcription, the splicing... and Chapter 17 Questions Question RNA is different from DNA in the sense that the 5 carbon sugar is ribose not deoxyribose; the nitrogen...
Common household items (chemicals) found in cells
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...amino acids in a protein determine how it folds into a three-dimensional shape; this structure is, in turn, responsible for the proteins function. Proteins carry out almost all the functions needed for cells to live. A change to the DNA in a gene can change a proteins amino acids, changing its shape and function: this can have a dramatic effect in the cell and on the organism as a whole. Major metabolic reactions by which the cell obtains and stores energy is in the form of ATP. This metabolic energy is then used to accomplish various tasks, including the synthesis of macromolecules and other cell constituents like carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids... . Researchers believe...
Ing-minske procedure/ amino acid protection/ nucleotide analogues/ stereochemistry/ regioselectivity
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...amino acid protection in synthesizing small peptides: Production of peptides in known as “peptide synthesis”, in organic chemistry. However, these organic compounds contain multiple amino acids which are bound together via “peptide” bonds; also known as amide bonds. Synthesis of peptides involves the coupling of carboxyl group or C-terminus of one amino acid to the amino group or N-terminus of another amino acid. In this process unintended reactions are expected, hence there is always a requirement of protecting groups. Chemical synthesis of peptide starts at the C-terminus of the peptide and ends at the N-terminus. The protecting groups are used to prevent polymerization of amino acids... Importance of...
Biology
2 pages (500 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Amino acids are a brand of organic compounds that contain both the amino and the carboxyl groups. Close to 20 of these acids act as the building blocks of proteins, which exist as a linear sequence of amino acids, joined together by peptide bonds, between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid subunits. The carboxyl group of one amino acid is linked to the amino group of the next, and so on. This chainlike molecule, which may range from 50 to several hundred amino acid subunits, is called a polypeptide. A protein may be made up of a solitary polypeptide chain or several such chains tied together by molecular bonds. Each protein is formed in accordance with a set of instructions...
Protein supplements for enhancing sport performance
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...amino acids Caffeine Creatine Alkalinizing agents CNS-acting compounds Glucosamine If taken in the right amounts, these supplements can help enhance the performance of athletes. However, this paper will narrow down to protein and amino acid supplements and their benefits. Many athletes use protein and amino acids supplements for the intended purpose of muscle growth, repair, and recovery of energy. They believe that a substantial intake of protein supplements... ?(Insert of Protein Supplements for Enhancing Sports Performance Athletes and sports personalities arealways on a quest to better their performance in the field or track every time they are in action. This performance is not only enhanced by the...
Folding and Aggregation
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...amino acids present in all biological organisms and made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Polymers usually contain a sequence of different amino acids and some are more commonly known as peptides instead of amino acids. Proteins usually perform their functions by folding into one or more conformations and some of the important... Life on a Knife Edge: Tipping the Balance between Folding and Aggregation This discussion is focused on the nature, structure and functions of proteins, how these are formed and the role played by folding and aggregation in protein and the various interactions that are part of protein functions. Proteins are a class of macromolecules, also described as polymers of am...
De-oxy-ribonuclease enzyme
3 pages (750 words) , Research Paper
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...amino acids. Scientists have described the existence of twenty different amino acids that are critical in building the wide range of proteins that perform the functions described above. The order and number of the amino acids making up each protein depend on the role played by each... De-oxy-ribonuclease Enzyme Introduction Proteins are critical cellular components that play a diverse range of functions as many cell biologists have outlined. The complexity of the roles played by proteins and their interactions has remained intriguing. Moreover, the regulation of the production of such proteins as well as the processes involved in activation and deactivation of protein molecules have remained of great...
Protein Article Research
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...amino acids which form the building block for the cells. Proteins are also incorporated in hormones, hemoglobin, creatinine and other cellular functions. Amino acids are involved in the formation of DNA and RNA which forms the backbone of the human genome (genes). Dietary source of proteins includes eggs, milk, meat, soya and beans (Millward, 2007). This paper will focus on discussing the difference in the protein requirements of an infant as compared to an adult. In humans... Protein Requirements in Infants and Adults A healthy diet consists of carbohydrate, proteins, vitamins and micronutrients. These elements play a vital role in the body. In the body, dietary proteins are broken down to simple amino...
Critically discuss the key factors influencing protein requirements in adults
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...amino acids and are bonded together by peptides (Richards & Richmond, 2009). It is therefore important to take in proteins as they are used to maintain body tissue, which is constantly tearing and wearing out... Critically Discuss the Key Factors Influencing Protein Requirements in Adults Factors that Influence Protein Requirements in Adults Introduction Nutritional requirements and the identification of dietary components of food, in terms of quantity and quality, are aspects that form the foundation of clinical nutrition and nutritional science at large. Deliberations in this realm rarely occur without some extent of controversy, with protein being one of the principal nutrients characterised by debates...
Digestion
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...amino acids inside the body (Ganong 2005) The digestion of the proteins starts in the stomach where the enzyme... ?Module 5 Trace the path of digestion through Jane from beginning to end. Include the nutrients the food contained and are broken down into, where digestion begins, what nutrients are broken into their components at each stage of digestion, and where these are absorbed. Also include where each nutrient is transported and used once it is absorbed. Students should include at least all of the macronutrients and three vitamins and minerals in the process. The diet which Jane Doe has consumed consists of all the three essential macronutrients for survival which are carbohydrates, lipids and...
Understanding the Biochemistry of BSE
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...amino acids that make up the di-peptide. Figure 1.1: Diagram showing the hydrolysis of a dipeptide in presence of an enzyme (Bryan, Pantoliano, & Rollence, 1987) Forces that stabilize proteins There are four forces that stabilize protein structures namely; - hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and disulphide bridges. These forces occur between side chains of individual amino acids to facilitate a stable structure. Hydrophobic Interactions: These are weak interactions that occur when hydrophobic... Breaking a peptide bond A peptide bond can be broken by water in the presence of an enzyme. This process is referred to as Hydrolysis. A di-peptide will be hydrolysed to yield the individual...
Article summary
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...amino-acids remain unbroken. Third, the crystal faces of minerals present in the rocks act as templates. These surfaces serve as models, which preferentially select certain primitive molecules, and make them biologically important. All living organisms have an excess of Left-handed amino acids. This is due to the fact that crystal faces preferentially choose left-handed amino acids. The faces of minerals, like calcite, serve as chemical bonding sites, where left-handed amino acids react to form proteins, which then replicate to form the units of life. The rocks actively... Robert M. Hazen: “Life’s Rocky Start Summary of the Article. Robert M. Hazen’s article, “Life’s Rocky Start,” explores the role...
Nutrition for Health and Social Care (DISCUSSION)
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...amino acids (Protein Digestion & Absorption , 2005). The structure of a protein is composed of a chain of amino acids that are linked to each other by peptide bonds. The peptide bonds are formed between the carboxyl end of one amino acid and the amino end of another amino acid (Protein Digestion & Absorption , 2005... Task Characteristics of macronutrients and their benefits to the body Macronutrients are divided into three es, and are basically described as the chemical compounds that are consumed by human beings in large quantities. Micronutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (Murray, et al., 2006). Proteins Proteins are defined as large biological molecules made of one or more chains of amino...
Biochemical identification-qualitative analysis
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...amino acids, nucleic acids and peptides tests were done using various methods which include diphenylamine test, biuret test, Ninhydrin test, Sudan dye test, Benedict’s test, I2 – KI test, and mineral tests. Introduction Different compounds contain different elements. Each of the element in these compounds has... Qualitative identification of biochemical elements present in various compounds Sunday, 11 September Qualitative identification of biochemical elements present in various compounds Abstract This experiment was aimed to identify various elements present in various compounds. In the experiment, present of calcium ions, chloride ions, reducing sugars, polysaccharides, lipids, carbohydrates, amino ac...
Thalassaemia
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...amino acids and anionic amino acids. The pH of the solution in which amino acids are dissolved mostly determine their ionic... Thassaleamia Lab Report Questions Samples Sample A: Polycythaemia vera Sample B: β-thalassaemia trait Sample C: Leukemia SampleD: β-thalassaemia homozygote Sample E: β-thalassaemia trait 2. Causes of Thalassaemia Thalassaemia is a blood disorder with inherited autosomal recessive features that affect the amount and nature of haemoglobin produced by a person. Most of the syndromes of α-thalassaemia result from gene deletions or gene mutations in one or more of the four α-globin gene copies. The syndromes of β-thalassaemia result from nucleotide deletions or substitutions in sets of...
Lab report on NITROGEN
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...amino acids contain large... Nitrogen The principle element at the beginning of the creation of the universe was hydrogen. Through the creation and death of stars and the movement of the universe, other heavier elements were created. As has been postulated on Earth, the primordial soup in addition to atmospheric conditions caused the creation of organic molecules containing the principle elements: carbon, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, fluorine, bromine, chlorine, and nitrogen. In particular, nitrogen is important to biological functioning and may have something to do with the fact that nitrogen is the main constituent in the atmosphere. Nitrogen is a diatomic element with an atomic number of seven and weig...
Examine the structure and function of proteins.
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...amino acids’ polymers, which are covalently bonded through peptide bonds forming a chain (Box et al, 2005). In and outside cells, proteins have several functions including acting as transporters to ferry molecuules and ions across membranes, structural roles for instance cytoskeleton, acting as hormones, and catalyzing other biological body reactions (He J et al., 2005). Biotechnology entails understanding, exploiting, and modifying proteins for useful purposes. In order to accomplish this, one needs to understand various fuctions of proteins and their structure. The focus of this paper is to summarize various structures of proteins, various... ? The structure and function of proteins Proteins are amino...
Scientific research assignment #2
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...amino acids with its The Mars Organic and Occident Detector (MOD) (Skelley et al., 2006). All life on Earth is comprised of chains of amino acids, although these may be to non-biological means as well. Earth life overwhelmingly tends to be comprised of left-handed amino-acids. The Urey is able to detect both types of amino acids through an oxidant... Although water has been located on different parts of Mars it is still a contentious issue as to whether life actually exists, or ever existed, on the red planet. And since the Viking mission of 1976 scientists have been developing instruments with more sensitivity to confirm their hypotheses. The current critical review looks at three different...
Industrial Biotechnology
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...acids, and biofuels. Transgenic plants, like Bt corn and herbicide resistant soybeans, were designed to improve agronomic performance, although these are also used in biopharming (pharmaceuticals from plants). Transgenic animals are currently used to express drugs in milk. Biotechnological approaches have been used to enhance the yield and diversity of the important compounds amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics and biofuels. Amino acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Humans and animals alike can synthesize amino acids,...
Industrial Biotechnology
8 pages (2000 words) , Essay
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...acids, and biofuels. Transgenic plants, like Bt corn and herbicide resistant soybeans, were designed to improve agronomic performance, although these are also used in biopharming (pharmaceuticals from plants). Transgenic animals are currently used to express drugs in milk. Biotechnological approaches have been used to enhance the yield and diversity of the important compounds amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics and biofuels. Amino acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Humans and animals alike can synthesize amino acids,...
How are Meat-Based Recipes Adapted for Vegetarians?
3 pages (750 words) , Research Paper
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...amino acids... Foods that are high in proteins include meat, cheese, eggs, milk, grains, legumes, and nuts” (Tro, 474). But it is possible that the adapted recipe is deficient in some form of proteins, therefore, “in the vegetarian diet, foods that lack a particular amino acid are complemented with foods rich in that amino acid.” (Tro, 476) The hydrogen bond in proteins is responsible for the way it reacts with other substances upon heating. “Most of their Hydrogen... of the of the of the How are Meat-Based Recipes Adapted for Vegetarians? Adapting meat-based recipes for vegetarians requires deeper insight and knowledge about the nature and chemical reactions of the ingredients being replaced and the...
Mars
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...amino acids with its The Mars Organic and Occident Detector (MOD) (Skelley et al., 2006). All life on Earth is comprised of chains of amino acids, although these may be to non-biological means as well. Earth life overwhelmingly tends to be comprised of left-handed amino-acids. The Urey is able to detect both types of amino acids through an oxidant... Although water has been located on different parts of Mars it is still a contentious issue as to whether life actually exists, or ever existed, on the red planet. And since the Viking mission of 1976 scientists have been developing instruments with more sensitivity to confirm their hypotheses. The current critical review looks at three different...
Gene Prediction
2 pages (500 words) , Lab Report
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...amino acids. The longest pattern always appears pink in color and the reading range was 1044 to 2039. Question 2 The longest genome pattern highlighted pink was then clicked and BLAST button again clicked, the BLAST button appears at the top of the page. The BLAST button sets all the parameters as default. To check the highest bit score given by the human genome, view report button was clicked to display the results. In the results, the highest bit score realized was 675 consistent to the identities 331/331 (100%) with positives of 331/331 (100%). Gaps related to this experiment was 0/331 i.e. 0%. Question 3 Still on the ORF Finder, when the button accept...
Caveolin protein
1 pages (250 words) , Essay
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...amino acid length of CAV-1 is 178 (UniProtKB). As a 21- to 24-kDa protein, CAV-1 is composed of 16 amino acids longer than CAV-2 and additional N-terminal 27 amino acids as compared to CAV-3 (Fielding 177). CAV-1 has two variants known as CAV-1α (contains amino acid tyrosin 14) and CAV-1β (does not contain the “first 31 amino acid present in CAV 1α) (Mercier, Jasmin and Lisanti 18). Both CAV-1α and 1β can be found in the lungs whereas CAV-1β can be found in the epithelial cells (Yuan, Garcia... ID Number & Caveolin Protein As a good example of scaffolding protein, the caveolin is considered as the principal marker of the caveolae (Gussak and Antezelevitch 234). Since the caveolin serve as the caveolae...
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