...theology and philosophy, Sufism was not a homogeneous, uniform body of tenets and practices, but an extremely ramified movement with distinct stages of development. Sufism is the direct outcome of the ascetic trend of religiosity, prevailing in original Islam itself which, later, was supplemented and enriched by foreign sources, in particular Christianity and Buddhism.
1. Annamarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimension of Islam; Chapel Hill, N.C., 1975, pp. 177-78
2. Carl W. Ernst, "The Textual Formation... The Bible, which serves as the spiritual underpinning for all of later Judaism, itself reflects Near Eastern culture and its long history. The of the Bible were greatly influenced...