...sciences in general.
As reported by Johnstone (1930), in matters of historical positioning, vitalism and materialism are not very different from each other. He says that, “During the last three centuries, biology has exhibited alternating phases of materialism and vitalism. Materialism when, under the stimuli of progress in physical science, it made great advances, and vitalism when, those stimuli being exhausted, it marked time (Johnstone, 1930, pp. 631)”. However, despite the drifting nature of how life was seen by biologist, the particular understanding of the two viewpoints changed very little.
For example, vitalism is defined as a doctrine that suggest that all... Life: Vitalism and Materialism One ...