Animal testing
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...ANIMAL TESTING Animal testing can be described as the use of animals except human beings to get answers to scientificexperiments. Most of the animals used are usually the vertebrates although a number of invertebrates can be traced in different unregulated tests. These tests are similar across the different countries in the entire world except for the fact that the experimental farms have different farms. Some of these farms have resulted to poaching while others breed their own samples. With the information above, it would be easier to identify whether...
Animal testing
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...animals have been medicines, drugs, cosmetics’ among other discoverers and inventors tools of testing their endeavors’ success as well as efficacy. The topic of the use of animals for scientific research/animal testing elicits mixed opinions in different individuals. Some of the animals that are used for research include rats, mice, rabbits, primates, dogs, cats, birds among others. Millions of those and other animals are locked in laboratories all over the world. While proponents for animal testing give numerous arguments in its favor such as the argument that it furthers the cause of scientific progress... and that it advances civilization in such fields as technology, medicine among...
Animal testing
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...test using animals has now provided a contradictory law against animal use in the scientific experiments. Animal rights activists and ecologists have ganged up to protect the welfare of animals by all means. After experiencing the suffering of a frog during a dissection practice lesson in high school, the urge to re-evaluate the consequences of animal testing was unavoidable. The hypothesis of this paper is that animal testing is an unethical practice that should be replaced with alternative medical research procedures. Activists such as...
Animal Testing
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...Animal Testing Animal testing has contributed immensely incoming up with life-saving cures and treatments. According to California Biomedical Research Association, almost all medical breakthroughs over the past one century used animals (Watson, 2009). Animal testing has also contributed to understanding how to treat malaria, Leukemia, and other major diseases that eliminated a very high number of human populations in the past. Animal are the best research subjects because they share similar characteristics with human beings. For instance, Chimpanzees has...
Animal Testing
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...Animal testing should be prohibited Introduction The major difference between humans and animals is the level of intelligence, which in turn creates the self-awareness abilities in humans, which are missing in animals. However, the abilities to feel pain are the same for both humans and animals. In this respect, animals’ pain should not be disregarded purely on the basis that they are not self-aware, so that they can be subjected to tests and experiments that are not normally subjected to humans (Fano, 189). Nevertheless, how would the treatment for various diseases be discovered should the animal testing be completely abolished? What would be the basis of selecting the humans that would... ...
Animal testing
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...Animal testing Also known as animal experimentation or animal research, animal testing refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific studies. The natures of the scientific studies vary from students at a university observing the behavior of mice to the complex medical testing where medical researchers use primates and mice to test new drugs. Advancement in such vital sectors of the modern society as health arises from the success of animal testing. Before introducing any drug in the market for human...
Animal testing : against
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...Animal Testing Thesis: For many years now the world of science and the general public have been torn between the pros and the cons in relation to testing animals for research purposes. Both arguments for and against it are not fully acceptable to all and no clear line has been drawn yet as to whether this type of research is beneficial or not. This paper aims at emphasizing on avoidance of animal testing. Against: Animal testing is immoral Animals go through pain, torture and horror animals are killed after research Against: Animal testing is sheer hypocrisy Humans take advantage of their superiority to mistreat animals Against: Scientific evidence shows examples of animal testing... Outline Topic:...
Animal Testing for Immunocompetence
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...Animal Testing for Immunocompetence Immunocompetence is a term which refers to the process by which organisms or animals activate their immune systems to fight or defend against attack by foreign bodies. Animals are part of these organisms, and there are various ways of animal testing for Immunocompetence. Clinical animal testing is the most commonly used whereby drugs are administered into the animals, and observation are made. Such testing can include skin test which provides information on the...
Animal testing on cosmetics
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...animal testing for the cosmetic industry The use of animals in experiments for researchhas been documented since the beginning of scientific research. The use of animals for tests has often been a bone of contention between the scientists and animal rights activists more so in the cosmetic field as the activists feel that it is unnecessary cruelty that does not bring any benefit to the rest of mankind. Many alternatives have been supported by the anti-test supporters including computer simulation model but they have been declined due to their inability to calculate all the variables that show up when an animal is used. As shown below there are many reasons... Lecturer: The Ugly Truth: An analysis of...
Animal testing debate
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...Animal testing debate May I take this moment to take you through the pros and cons of animal testing. I am known for my passion towards animals as living beings, rather than test subjects. Therefore, I am strongly against animal testing in medical research as I deem it to be unethical. Animal experiments are widely used to develop medicine and chemicals used to treat human illness and improve human health. It has been practiced since the primeval epoch when the Greeks killed and dissected animals for religious and...
Animal Testing and Rgihts
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...Animal Testing and Rights Today we have progressed a lot in the field of biological sciences and the progressis not attributed to the researchers alone but also to the millions of animal lives lost or “sacrificed” in these scientific endeavors. Vivisection has been around the times of Gaelen in the Common Era and formed the basis of empirical research in medicine. Animal vivisection, according to some researchers, is of extreme importance to us because it assists in finding cures for diseases and study chemical interactions in cells etc. In fact, vivisection of small animals like frogs, rabbits and mice is...
Animal testing and research
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...Animal Testing and Research The use of animals in understanding diseases and their control by use of vaccines cannot be overstated. For instance the development of vaccines depend solely on the acquired immune system, this provides an opportunity to pass some of the crucial but risky stages of developing vaccines in animals since they mimic human beings in important aspects like antibody response to antigen (Grayson and Library 134). This is called immunological response. In fact, of all the three phases of developing vaccines, it is only in the last phase that the testing is done on human beings-the clinical stage. Animals thus provides medium for prerequisite test to prove the efficacy... ...
Animal Testing Essay
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...Animal Testing: Pros and Cons Long before a product, cosmetic, vaccine, or medicine is available for human use it has in many cases been tested on animals. Cancer fighting drugs are routinely tested on mice to see if the agent has any potential to eradicate cancer in the human body. Lab rats have for centuries been used as the test subject of choice in the early phases of a wide range of medical treatments and experiments. As the product becomes more refined, primates are often used as a last test before subjecting humans to a novel new treatment. Cosmetics are applied to mammals to test for skin reactions and allergies. While animals have been a large part of product research and have been... ...
Substitute for Animal Testing
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...Animal Testing' An argumentative essay Discipline' Is there a substitute for Animal Testing' Every day thousands of people worldwide are treated for dreadful diseases. We overlook the fact that this bliss of medical treatment has been made available after long term animal testing. Despite these overwhelming benefits, some people are against animal testing. Those opposed to the use of animal testing claim that it is atrocious and brutal to use animals in experiments. They believe that the outcomes of animal experiment are misleading and not pertinent to human as their physiology is different .Further, the stress that animals undergo; adversely affects the result of studies... Is there a substitute for...
Cons of Cosmetic Animal Testing
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...Animal Testing Cons of Animal Testing Introduction Cosmetic animal testing refersto the use of superficial measures on animals, other than human beings, in research and development projects in order to establish the safety levels of substances such as drugs and foods (Cosmetic: animal testing, n.d.). Recent statistics from various research projects have proved that there are more disadvantages than the advantages associated with cosmetic animal testing. It is in that light that different bodies have taken bold steps in banning the practice of cosmetic animal testing. Discussion In what is perceived as a significant victory for both animal rights activists and the very animals... Cons of Cosmetic Animal...
Argumentative Essay on Animal Testing
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...Animal Testing s 18 November 2009 An Introduction Inflicting pain upon others has become source of deriving pleasure for many people, animals have their own feelings and they too feel the pain as the human beings do but this has been constantly ignored by the human beings and especially the scientists who conduct numerous researches on poor and helpless animals. There is an evident lack of concern in the society towards one another let alone the case of animals, one man's suffering is another man's pleasure and this becomes even more barbaric in the case of animals. The human beings have...
For or against animal testing
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...Animal Testing There is a raging debate on the use of animals for scientific research and testing. Although the practice has been going on since the time of Aristotle in 4th Century, BC (Buzzle.com), it continues to elicit varied reactions from different people. The core question remains, is the use of animals for testing justified? It cannot be denied that science has attained progress through the use of animal testing. Several life-saving drugs and treatments have been developed through this practice. The European Forum of Good Clinical Practice had organized a workshop and gave conclusions on ethical recommendations on animal experimentation and clinical studies, whereas, much... An Argument For...
Animal Testing Book Report/Review
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...Animal Testing Introduction The tension between the pros and cons of using animals for experimentation haswidely grown in the past decades. Medical scientists and the likes with support from government around the world stand to continue the practice being the most economical and the best chances of improving the health services. They believe it is the most ethical and moralistic approach than using humans as subjects for medical experimentations. But animal rights advocates, backed by a wide sector of environmentalist organizations, raised concern over the practice of vivisection and condemned it as immoral and unethical and has less regard on the feelings of other... of The Lancet published...
We must ban animal testing
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...Animal testing should be banned Introduction Over one hundred million animals go through suffering and die in cruel chemical, drug, food and cosmetic testing every year. They are also used in teaching biology, training of medical students as well as medical experiments in universities and other learning institutions that are inspired by curiosity (Turner 268). The precise number of animals that go through this torture and cruel treatment is not known as mice, rats and birds along with other cold-blooded animals, that constitute over ninety-five percent of the animals used in experiments, are not under any form of animal protection Acts and thus are not counted (PETA). In the testing... Lecturer: Animal ...
Animal testing should not be banned
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...animal testing in laboratories for a very long time. To ensure many medicines, cosmetics and food additive are safe for humans they are tested on non-human animals. Indeed, this practice has been in use from mid to late 1800s. In the early 1920s, the phenomenon of using live non-human animals to study the potential effects of toxics in an array of drugs came into use. The assumption is that the effects of such products on the animal used in the experiment are similar to that they would have on humans. Since the Roman Church had burned dissecting of human beings, researchers opted to go the animal way... as they provided the best alternatives to human being and indeed, animal...
The History of the Animal Testing Controversy
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...Animal Testing Controversy Animal testing s back to the second and third centuries. This is supported by Greek writings that indicate Erasistratus and Aristotle to be first to conduct tests on animals. However, Galen is called the father of vivisection because he was the first to perform tests on goats and pigs. The controversy on animal testing began with the comment of Edmund O’Meara, a physiologist, who stated that “the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state” (qtd in The history of animal testing). O’Meara and others who were against animal testing stated that scientists are mislead by the statements that the body of animals is different... and that the...
Alternative solutions for Animal testing on medication
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...Animal testing on medication Introduction I consider the animal testing to be to be a big problem in the United s. Researchers test pharmaceuticals in animals to determine toxicity, dosing, and efficacy before they start human clinical trials. Along with high costs and questionable efficiency it entails tremendous suffering of millions speechless living creatures. Not taking into account moral issues of this topic it should be said that there are practical and theoretical reasons for substitution of animal testing. I believe that besides saving countless lives of animals, alternatives to animal tests are quite efficient and reliable. The necessity to seek... the animal...
Pros and Cons of Animal Testing
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...Animal testing – Is it worth it? Number] Drug trials are necessary before the medicine to be authentically allowed for prescription. However, these drugs need to be tested before they can be used to treat humans. Pharmaceutical manufacturers have been using animals like mice, pigs, cats etc to test medicines. Many diseases have been found common between animals, especially in vertebrates and humans. This is the main reason why experimenting on animals has become so common over the past years. Animal testing dates back to the 2nd century, when a physician named Galen dissected goats and pigs. In the past, animal testing was justified due to lack of technology and absence... of proficiency in...
Animal testing why and why not
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...test animal at a large cosmetic company. In another movie Rise of the Planet of the Apes, an experimental drug for Alzheimer’s and other brain diseases gives rise to a highly intelligent primate named Caesar who eventually leads his kind in a revolt against humans. Will Smith’s movie I Am Legend featured rats that were being used for animal testing. Movies are supposedly adapted from real life and, to sell, their stories should be relevant to audiences. If so, then the use of animals for research is indeed a popular and big enough issue of today to be made... ?Introduction In the movie Legally Blonde 2, one of the subplots is how the lead character’s dog, Bruiser, looks for his mom and discover she is a...
Animal Testing
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...animals as test s The use of animals as test s for conducting research on newly developed medications prior to human trials and released to the market place. Titus Rock Manickam Order No. 244885 17 October 2008 The use of animals as test subjects for conducting research on newly developed medications prior to human trials and released to the market place. Introduction The use of animals for the purpose of conducting research on medications has given rise to intense debates. It is difficult to stand up for one or the other issues that crop up with the subject. It is hard to say it is required. It is equally difficult to say it is not. We need to carry out experiments... The use of...
In defence of beagles: the socio-economic implications of using beagles in animal testing
9 pages (2250 words) , Essay
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...animal testing Introduction The long and well-explored debate on animal testing has led many animal rights to be recognized in the society. In turn, the efforts led by many animal rights groups have helped ratify several laws to promote the rights of animals and fight against animal testing. To date, although the appeal has not totally eradicated experiments involving animals, it has promoted the awareness to animal rights and possibly lessened the frequency of animal testing around the world. In particular, some laboratories involved in animal breeding for experiments have closed following demonstrations by organizations... ?In defence of beagles: the socio-economic implications of using beagles in...
Animal testing the pros and cons w/ the effects of both side.
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...Animal Testing: Pros and Cons Long before a product, cosmetic, vaccine, or medicine is available for human use it has in many cases been tested on animals. Cancer fighting drugs are routinely tested on mice to see if the agent has any potential to eradicate cancer in the human body. Lab rats have for centuries been used as the test subject of choice in the early phases of a wide range of medical treatments and experiments. As the product becomes more refined, primates are often used as a last test before subjecting humans to a novel new treatment. Cosmetics are applied to mammals to test for skin reactions and allergies. While animals have been a large part of product research and have been... ...
Can the animal testing done to find cures for diseases be done humanely or is it by nature inhumane
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...animal testing has been a scientific concern for as long as scientific research has promised cures to human health problems. Indeed, animal testing plays an important role in determining the appropriate course of action for biological diseases and ailments. Given the importance of scientific research on animals within a laboratory, the question then becomes how much inhumanness humankind is willing to accept before it gives up on the medical breakthroughs that animal testing provides. It seems that, in the past, mankind was not willing to give up animal testing because much more relaxed standards on what a researcher could do to his animal were in place that allowed for very torturous acts... Humane...
The intersection between ethics and politics in ANIMAL RIGHTS about Animal Genetic Testing
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...Animal Testing and Ethics Your School Department, This paper is a partial fulfillment for the ________, under Professor ________. Animal Testing and Ethics There are two schools of thought when it comes to this argument: first, the thought that says, animal testing is morally acceptable since it is a necessary tool for advancement in the society and for humanity. The second school of thought basically says that animal testing is not a necessary approach when it comes to developing new drugs or at least, new technology. Animals are like...
Should people ban testing on animals based upon people unethical research of animal?
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...Test On Animals Based Upon People Unethical Research Of Animal? INTRODUCTION Experiments to curtail issues related with healthcare through innovation have become a common phenomenon today. With the advancement of technology, various experiments and researches are being conducted in order to suffice the growing needs of the society, especially in the healthcare sector. In this milieu, experiments and innovation have become important to ensure effective interventions in healthcare settings. However, similar to every other research or invention project, healthcare experiments also bear a degree of ethical responsibilities, wherein the use of animals for testing have fuelled debates... Should People Ban Test ...
An Argumentive Paper About Using Animals for Testing Cosmitics
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...animals for testing cosmetics Animals have been around humanity for as humanity has existed and their relationship is one of both love and hate. In both the theory of evolution and the biblical story of creation, animals were created first, and paved the way for human existence, and since then they have become our hunters, our prey, our companions, our workforce, protection, and tools. However, in recent times, this relationship we have with animals has taken a different turn. There have been cases of animals being used as test subjects for cosmetic products and although this may not sound dangerous at first, think of why they need to test... the cosmetics on animals before...
Animal tesing in medical research
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...Animal Testing in Medical Research Animal testing is a vital issue for medical researchers. It hastens the discovery of drugs and treatment and in many cases is the only possible way for such discovery that is necessary to cure diseases such as cancer and diabetes. For this reason, animal testing is defended by the scientific community and a large section of the public. In fact, there are many people who protest against animal testing for cosmetics but advocate the same for the development of new drugs and medicines. However, the cons of...
Animal Experimentation
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...Animal Experimentation The issue of animal testing draws some strong sentiments aimed at thebenefits and demerits of the practice. For this reason, this paper aims at examining the available attitudes relating to animal testing and the measure that should be taken to treat animals humanely. Animal testing should be conducted following its immense health benefits towards humans in relation to assisting preterm babies and children. In this light, animal experiments have helped to come up with a solution to ensure that preterm babies survive despite their weak bodies and health. This is due to experiments conducted on lambs using steroids that have proved the strengthening properties... October 17th Animal ...
Animal Behaviour
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...animals should be avoided at all costs. Lots of commissions, laws and animal rights activists have emerged over the course of time, and they have educated human’s psychology as well as provided safe havens to the naive animals. Nevertheless, animal testing is still being done widely, since it is beneficial and in so many ways the gain the human gets out of these experiments in fighting and eradicating the diseases from the face of the earth is beyond explanation. It is this very trait that has enabled human to invent new surgical methods and in finding cures for many... Animal Behaviour ‘Ethical consideration for the laboratory based studies on animals’ Medical Researchers need to device methods and...
Alternative Solutions to Medical Testing on Animals
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...Testing on Animals Introduction Animal testing just as the suggests refers to the use of other non-human animals in experiments. Such experiments occur in institutions of learning such as high schools and universities. Others occur in defense establishments, medical schools, farms, pharmaceutical companies and commercial facilities among many others. Animal testing includes such simple activities as observing mice run in a maze to other extensive experiments that include injecting the animals or even dissecting them. While the results of animal testing are always profitable to humans, animals suffering in such tests raise considerable ethical concerns. An ethical... Alternative Solutions to Medical...
There is no need for animal research anymore
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...Animal Testing Introduction There was a time when products were tested on beings held in unfit conditions in captivity against their will. These tests were done in the way of science and would benefit medical research and, in turn, mankind. These were the tests conducted on Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. When we look back at these events, we can’t help but think about how cruel and unjust these tests were. But what we fail to see is that these kinds of actions have been and are still going on today. Living beings are still held in captivity under unfit conditions and...
Animal Experimentation
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...animals in scientific experiments increased dramatically especially after the discovery of anesthetics in mid-nineteenth century; the number of non-human animals used in scientific investigations in UK alone increased from one million per year in early nineteenth century to exceed five millions per year in the 1970s. This huge increase in the use of animals for research purposes was paralleled with an increase in the resistance and oppositions to animal testing. The animal testing controversy involves three sides; a group that is in favor of using animals...
Testing on Animals
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...Testing on Animals Introduction Animal testing is the use of animals (non-human) in scientific experiments. It would be of great importance to note from the onset that animal testing does not necessarily mean that the animal has to be killed. Some forms of animal testing only involve the observation of animal behaviors. Animal testing is sometimes referred to as animal research, animal experimentation or in-vivo testing....
Animal Cruelty
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...Animal Cruelty. A growing debate among animal rights activist the world over revolves the use of animals as s forscientific studies and experiments. This is particularly so in the medical world which relies on animals to carry out research that leads to the development of new medicines. Animals are used the world over by scientists in their efforts at developing new medicines and testing both efficacy and safety of their medicines. In majority of the experiments, animals have to suffer excruciating pains while at the same time their quality of life is significantly...
Animal Rights
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...Animal Testing be banned? An Ethical Exploration Introduction One of the most debated topics in modern animal right discourses is whether animals should be used for scientific test or not. There is always a group of scholars and common people who are dead against the animal test. On the other hand, considerate people opine that animals can be used in scientific experiments, if such experiments are meant for the betterment of humanity and animal kingdom. Some of those who are against animal-testing argue that those animals which possess consciousness and a certain level of rational capability should have the right not to be used for scientific experiment. Another group argues... that the...
Animal Rights
8 pages (2000 words) , Research Paper
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...Animal Testing be banned? An Ethical Exploration Introduction One of the most debated topics in modern animal right discourses is whether animals should be used for scientific test or not. There is always a group of scholars and common people who are dead against the animal test. On the other hand, considerate people opine that animals can be used in scientific experiments, if such experiments are meant for the betterment of humanity and animal kingdom. Some of those who are against animal-testing argue that those animals which possess consciousness and a certain level of rational capability should have the right not to be used for scientific experiment. Another group argues... that the...
1.If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration (Singer, Speciesism and the Equality of Ani-mals). Is it ethical to experiment on/with animal subjects?
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...Animal Testing Animal Testing Over the years, there has been an increased concern over the validity of using animals for biological and medical research. Large amounts of money have been invested in animal research processes and experimentation in laboratories. Apart from the moral concerns, there are scientific disquiets that have proven that experimentation on animals is not entirely a successful process. There is considerably minimal benefit that humans accrue from the experimentation of animals, mostly owing to the difference in anatomy....
Animals for drug testing
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...animals for drug testing. The debate over the ethics of the practices and its practical benefits has raged on for close to three decades now (Speth), with neither opponents nor proponents willing, or able, to understand the opposing viewpoint and position. Proponents of the use of animals for drug and chemical testing have consistently and persistently maintained that medical and pharmaceutical research cannot proceed were live specimens, as in lab animals, removed from the equation. This camp has further maintained that the practice has led to the development... of countless of drugs which, in turn, have been responsible for the saving of millions of human lives (Jones). The...
Animal Experimentation
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...ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION (A CRITICAL ANALYSIS) Introduction: The practice of testing on animals goes back many centuries. In A.D 100's, a Greek physician Galen proved that veins carry blood and not air as it was previously believed. This event was recorded as the first known use of animals in medical research. Today, animals are still being experimented for a variety of reasons. For example, they are used to test new drugs and medical procedures, which determine whether it is beneficial to humans, or harmful. Other uses include learning the harmful effects of a new product such as a...
Testing on Animals. Some people are FOR and some people are against.
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...Testing on Animals For my research, I have chosen to work on animal testing. Also known as in vivo testing, testing on animals involves using non human animals for experiments. My interest in the topic of testing on animals has been drawn by a documentary that I recently watched about the process involved in making drugs meant for use by humans. From the documentary, I learnt that before drugs are tested on humans, they have to be tested on animals. This whole situation got me thinking whether or not animals should really be subjected to tests that may lead to their deaths. Animal testing or animal research involves using animals other than humans for doing research. While... Research Proposal on...
Should Animal Experimentation Be Permitted?
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...animal experimentation be permitted? Animal experimentation is the practice of using non-human animals in experiments. It is used in various fields of research like human medicine and animal keeping while carrying out research. Many have argued that it is against the rights of animals on the contrary others claim use of animals is more logical than use of humans. This paper will seek to clarify as to whether animal experimentation be permitted. Breakthroughs in treating spinal cord injuries, like practically all medical advances, depend upon experimentation on animal. Experiments on the regeneration of spinal nerve endings were conducted at the University of Zurich. In test-tube... April 21 Should...
Rhetorical Analysis: Animal Experimentation Science or a sorry Excuse for Medicine
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...Animal Experimentation Science or a sorry Excuse for Medicine Thesis topic: Are there alternatives that can replace animal testing as a source of data in regard to scientific and medical studies and advancements? Are these methods as competent as animal testing or even better/ Are people justified to be against animal testing? “Animal Experimentation: Science or a sorry Excuse for Medicine” is an article written by Megan Dunford for the Northern Virginia Daily on 17th January 2012. In this article she is set on exploring the position of animal activists ranging from professionals like doctors, scientists and elite members of the public on animal-based experimentation... . From the arguments...
Rhetorical Analysis: Animal Experimentation Science or a sorry Excuse for Medicine? By Megan Dunford
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...Animal Experimentation Science or a sorry Excuse for Medicine Thesis topic: Are there alternatives that can replace animal testing as a source of data in regard to scientific and medical studies and advancements? Are these methods as competent as animal testing or even better/ Are people justified to be against animal testing? “Animal Experimentation: Science or a sorry Excuse for Medicine” is an article written by Megan Dunford for the Northern Virginia Daily on 17th January 2012. In this article she is set on exploring the position of animal activists ranging from professionals like doctors, scientists and elite members of the public on animal-based experimentation... . From the arguments...
Tracing the pathway of a cheeseburger through the entire digestive system
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...Animal testing Thesis ment The research below focuses on the background of animal testing; the meaning of animal testing, its history. It also addresses the stakeholders that are for the animal testing as well as those that are against the animal testing. Some of the stakeholders whose views are taken into account are People for Ethical treatment for Animals (P.E.TA) (Watson, 90). The other stakeholder is Bayer. Bayer is an international enterprise with vital competencies in the sector of health care,...
Is it unethical to test on animals,even if the testing helps save human lives?
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...Animal Testing Introduction There are a number of controversial issues that still pervade contemporary times. The controversiality of argument depends on the disparities of perspectives, not only of the opposing parties; but more so, on its overall effect to society or humanity. As it is, it could be an argumentative point to assert that if the value of the argument is ultimately premised on the benefit or wellbeing of humans, what about decisions that affect other living things, natural resources, or anything seen to affect human lives? It is this conceptual framework that leads to the argument: Is it unethical to test on animals, even if the testing helps save human... ?Ethical Issues Involved in...
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