Apoptosis
10 pages (2500 words) , Lab Report
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...apoptosis signaling. The gradual transformation of colorectal epithelium to carcinomas is associated with a series of accumulated genetic alterations which give rise to unregulated epithelial cell proliferation as a result of a progressive inhibition of apoptosis (Bedi et al., 1995). Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of cell death which is under genetic control. It is also well recognized that apoptosis and the genes that control it have a strong effect on the malignant phenotype. The genes found mutated most frequently in colon cancer are adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), deleted in colon cancer (DCC), K-Ras, and p53... ?Lab report An important characteristic of most cancers is a defect in...
Apoptosis
6 pages (1500 words) , Research Paper
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...Apoptosis is an important programmed cell death process which exists and occurs in in multicellular organisms. It is different from necroses, according to which traumatic cell death is a caused by acute cellular injury. In Apoptosis the advantage basically is linked with the advantages coming from organism’s life cycle. Apoptosis produces apoptotic bodies which are cell fragments through which phagocyte cells quickly remove and also engulf the content linked with the cell which can spill out in the cells which are in the surrounding which is extremely harmful. In an average human being almost 50 to 70 billion cells and in a child about 20 billion to 30 billion are damaged and they die due... ...
Tendonitis and apoptosis
4 pages (1000 words) , Literature review
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...Apoptosis and Tendonitis Development in Human Tenocytes Cellular apoptosis in tenocytes has been linked to several differential gene regulations such as upregulation of: Type III collagen mRNA expression; pro-inflammatory cytokines through oxidative stress; tumor necrosis factor-?; and upregulation of p53, RCD, and some heat shock proteins, as well as increased downregulation of TIEG1, in the extracellular matrices in the tendons (Buhrmann, et al., 2011; Courneya, et al., 2010; Haddad, et al., 2011; Klatte-Schulz, et al., 2012; Maeda, et al., 2009; Millar, et al., 2009). Other factors that could initiate cell apoptosis... such as vulnerability of tendons to hypoxia which leads to...
The Biochemistry of Apoptosis
12 pages (3000 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Apoptosis The Biochemistry of Apoptosis The term apoptosis is a term which is used to describe the normal death of a living cell in living organisms. This is a normal and constant process since the living organisms function when new cells are born and they generate and the old cells or selected cells die. This is considered as a normal and daily process of a human body. For example human embryos have more cells than the human adults. The embryo develops and some selected cells are executed because of which normal development takes place. Thus, when the cells don’t pass through apoptosis, they may face deformity in the embryo and its growth. The term apoptosis can’t be confused... ? The Biochemistry of...
Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis
10 pages (2500 words) , Essay
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...Apoptosis 21st December Apoptosis Apoptosis also defined as programmed cell death or physiological cell death that occurs as a result of a deliberate activation of the constituent genes, whose main function is to cause its own death. It is a series of Biochemical events lead to change in the cell morphology followed by cell death. Characteristically these morphological changes includes, the aggregation of chromatin together with cytoplasm and nuclear condensation into a distinct membrane bound vesicles which are known as Apoptotic Bodies, there is chromosomal DNA fragmentation, shrinkage of cell and cell blebbing (which are intact membrane...
E2F1 is crucial for E2F-dependent apoptosis.
6 pages (1500 words) , Coursework
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...apoptosis Cell cycle regulates the cell proliferation and they must divide to enter the mitotic Before entering the mitotic phase, the cell must pass through a number of check points. Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) plays an important role in the epithelial cell differentiation and viability apart from this they also act as positive transcriptional co regulators. These retinoblastoma protein were phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in the mammalian cells and were found to play an important role as tumor suppressor gene. The tumor suppressor genes constitute a large group of genes that specify protein products mediating diverse cell-physiologic functions. These proteins... ?E2F1 is crucial for E2F-dependent...
The relationship between Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Plants
2 pages (500 words) , Annotated Bibliography
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...Apoptosis in Plants Tor, Y. S., Yazan, L. S., Foo, J. B., Wibowo, A., Ismail, N., Ismail, M., Yazan, L. S., Yeap, S. K. (June 05, 2015). Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via oxidative stress generation, mitochondria-dependent and caspase-independent pathway by ethyl acetate extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and its chemical profile. Plos One, 106.) The Articles main objective is to expound on how cell death is induced in a MC7-cells culture via different biological processes such as generating oxidative stress by using a Dillenia suffruticosa Ethyl Acetate extract. In this article, the authors unravel that from a previous... Topic al Affiliation The relationship between Oxidative Stress and...
Mechanisms of survival and apoptosis of leukaemia cells.
10 pages (2500 words) , Literature review
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...Apoptosis of Leukaemia Cells Leukaemia is a form of blood cancer which is characterised by intense growth of white blood cells. In human body, the cell growth, separation and elimination among others aspects are controlled through apoptosis procedure. It is a mechanism which also controls the evolution and the survival of leukaemia cells. In case of leukaemia, it can be observed that these cells can effectively evade the apoptosis procedure which in turn helps abnormal survival and growth of leukaemia cells in human body. There are various mechanisms which help in the survival of leukaemia cells such as cell signalling, overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins... and inactivation of...
Assignment
4 pages (1000 words) , Assignment
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...apoptosis; where cells deliberately destroy... Lecturer “Cell Death” All organism are made up of millions of cells that perform different functions under different conditions in their daily activities. These cells are subject to the ‘use – disuse’ theory and as such, they die after some time. The cells may die non-accidentally after they have completed a given number of division cycles. The Hayflick limit puts the estimate of the number of cycles at about 60. The cells could as well die at an earlier stage if so programmed like in the experiment case study where the reindeer cultured cells die after being exposed to Grinch or in digit separation in morphogenesis. This programmed cell death is called...
Nitric Oxide Production in Cytokine Activated Macrophages
5 pages (1250 words) , Lab Report
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...Apoptosis plays... Nitric Oxide Production in Cytokine Activated Macrophages Background Microphages play a key role in the regulation of adaptive and innate immune responses via intracellular and phagocytosis digestion of apoptotic cells, microorganisms, and inflammatory byproducts, and the secretion of chemokine, cytokines, and reaction nitrogen and oxygen intermediates (Albina, 1993). Simulation of the macrophages with the cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-β, IL-6, and TNF-α, which are secreted during various processes of immune responses, result in synthesis of NO (NOS). NOS causes the macrophages to become cytotoxic against tumor cells, microorganisms, and normal cells (Chong, 2005)....
Biochemistry
12 pages (3000 words) , Dissertation
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...Apoptosis iv. Death of mature immune cells v. Apoptosis in clinical immunology vi. Conclusion References The biochemistry of apoptosis Introduction The recognition of the death of cells by apoptosis has existed for many years. The full explanation of the biochemistry of apoptosis, that has surfaced for years is nothing short of astonishing, and has changed our perceptions about diseases. Usually, the categorization of ailments has been in accordance of the organ system they affect. Nevertheless, it is useful for researchers to discover the system responsible for the diseases. In this respect, the simple reclassification according to whether... ? BIOCHEMISTRY Task: Outline i. Introduction ii. iii....
Cellular Biology Article Discussion-Gene Sharing Yields an Enzyme with Two Binding Sites in One Subunit
2 pages (500 words) , Article
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...apoptosis channel (mAC) in the promotion of infarction... Cellular Biology Article Discussion “Mitochondrial Death Channels” by Webster, K.A., American Scientist, October 2009 http www.americanscientist.org/issues/feature/2009/5/mitochondrial-death-channels/1 Introduction Mitochondria are important organelles responsible for cellular respiration and generation of energy in all multicellular organisms. Often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell, the mitochondria produce energy from glucose and oxygen in the form of the high-energy compound, ATP. Thus, mitochondria function in an oxic environment. The presence of thrombosis that is, clogging of a coronary artery by a blood clot leads to ischemia or red...
The relationship between SC35 and E2F1 in the apoptotic response of head and neck cancer.
21 pages (5250 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis in cancer cells increase tumor sensitivity to cisplatin. Normal expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 increases cisplatin dependent killing of tumor cells. Normal expression of Bcl2 also increases cisplatin sensitivity of tumor cells. Overexpression of molecules that promote normal mitochondrial structure and function inhibit apoptosis and therefore increase cisplatin resistance. Apoptosis is induced by the release of mitochondrial proteins, membrane associated molecules, and enzymes, and therefore agents that inhibit mitochondrial function promote... ? Cancer of the Head and Neck Epidemiology The majority of cancer in the head and neck is derived from squamous cell carcinoma....
Cellular Enviroment
2 pages (500 words) , Assignment
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...apoptosis or necrosis. Pathophysiological explanation of aging as it pertains to cellular structure Aging is a gradual deterioration of a mature organism leading to irreversible structural changes as time passes by. According to Brashers (2006), cellular changes facets of aging include hypertrophy, and the weakened capability to undergo mitosis. Cellular function is impaired by the deposition of lipids (lipid peroxidation products), programmed changes in gene expression, damage from free radicals and advanced glycation end products. These intertwined processes induce apoptosis. Every cell is planned for a definite number... Cellular Environment due: Pathophysiological explanation of cellular swelling...
Lap report
10 pages (2500 words) , Lab Report
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...apoptosis signaling. The gradual transformation of colorectal epithelium to carcinomas is associated with a series of accumulated genetic alterations which give rise to unregulated epithelial cell proliferation as a result of a progressive inhibition of apoptosis (Bedi et al., 1995). Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of cell death which is under genetic control. It is also well recognized that apoptosis and the genes that control it have a strong effect on the malignant phenotype. The genes found mutated most frequently in colon cancer are adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), deleted in colon cancer (DCC), K-Ras, and p53... ?Lab report An important characteristic of most cancers is a defect in...
Beehive extract potential prostate cancer treatment
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis process. The treatment of prostrate cancer through chemotherapy and radiotherapy is widely known. Nevertheless, these methods... Task: Beehives extract potential pro cancer treatment The research outcome at the of Chicago proved that some extracts from beehives could cure prostrate cancer. The beehives propolises contain compounds called the Caffeine Acid Phenyl Ester, which bees use to seal openings in the hives. According to Jones, Kokontis & Chuu, the discovery of the compound especially its ability to cure diseases was evident a long time ago; however, the medical experts have not approved it because their side effect are unknown. Propolis has been instrumental in curing diseases for many...
Argument and further work
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin is partly contributed to by Cytochrome C mediated triggers, then the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin can be quantified by measurement of Cytochrome C concentration in the cytosol. Immunohistochemical techniques have been proved to be particularly useful in this quantification. Cytochrome C released from the intermembrane space of mitochondria is a known trigger of apoptosis; however, aqueous... We will investigate the impact of oxaliplatin in the expression of survivin by using Western Blot Assay. It is known that oxaliplatin demonstrates a wide variety of antitumor activities. It has been proposed by Ngan et al. (2008) that by experimental data, it can be hypothesised ...
Natural resistance mechanisms to HIV-1 infection
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a programmed death of the cells in multi-cells organism. During the HIV infection apoptosis is the main mechanism by which infected and uninfected CD4+ lymphocytes are eliminated. However apoptosis as a natural resistant mechanism to HIV infection has not been explored so far. Genetic factor. To enter the cells, HIV usually must fuse with a receptor called CCR5 that sits on the surface of T-helper immune cells. The delta-32 mutation in the gene encoding the CCR5 protein results in a defective receptor site that blocks entry of the virus. People who have two copies of the mutation (one from each...
The anti-Cancer activity of Rhein in Leukaemia
28 pages (7000 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis. The D1.1 cell line lack the expression of CD4 molecule required as co-receptor that activate the T helper cells. The J.gamma1 subline - There is absolute deficiency of phospholipase C (PLC-γ1) protein. These cells are, thus are defective in calcium mobilization in the T-cells. The nuclear factor (NFAT) required for the activation T cells. The Jγ (Jurcat) cell line is employed in cancer growth... 1.0 Introduction 1 Leukaemia Carcinogenesis is characterized by three salient features, viz. uncontrolled proliferation, invasion in to surroundingtissues, and metastasis, i.e. spread into distant organs. By definition, Leukaemia is a group of heterogeneous diseases caused by the uncontrolled cell...
Critique analysis of scientific paper (How does calorie restriction work?)
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...Apoptosis is a type of cell death in which old... Critique Analysis of Scientific Paper: How Does Calorie Restriction Work? Inserts His/Her Inserts Grade Inserts Tutor’s Name 3.12.2010 Critique Analysis of Scientific Paper: How Does Calorie Restriction Work? Calorie Restrictions (CR) refers to a dietetic routine in which calorie intake is limited without causing under nutrition. Studies have repeatedly shown CR to extend life span of various animals considerably, including rodents, fish and nonhuman primates. It has also been found to hinder a variety of diseases among these experimental subjects, for example, kidney disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and even Alzheimer, and even hindering psychomotor...
Cell Biology
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis. Apoptosis is just the opposite of mitosis; inability of a cell to undergo proper apoptosis can result in spread of cancer. Most of the cells in human body have a very diverse life span. Their life can range from just a few days to a couple of years. References Bailey, R (2010). 10 Facts About Cells. Found Online at: http://biology.about.com/od/cellbiology/a/cells-facts.htm... Biology ID Lecturer Cells are the most basic and fundamental units of life for any living organism. Every single function in the bodies of humans, animals and plants depends upon the formation and mobilization of these cells. Scientists and researchers estimate that our bodies comprise of somewhere around 75 to 100...
The effect of Sildenafil (viagra) on antral follicle development in sheep
4 pages (1000 words) , Literature review
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...apoptosis and luteolysis. Furthermore, the uses of Viagra will increase the regulation of folliculogenesis in sheeps, and this is because of high supply of nitric oxide, in which case the high nitric oxide will involve in controlling of both the ovarian apoptotic cell death and granulosa-luteal cell steroidogenic activities... ? The Effect of Sildenafil (Viagra) on Antral Follicle Development in Sheep By + , State The Effect of Sildenafil (Viagra) on Antral Follicle Development in Sheep Continuous phases of cellular proliferation and differentiation characterizes the ovarian cycle, in which case it involves a series of ovarian follicle development. In sheep, folliculogenesis is the key process in...
The effect of Sildenafil (viagra) on antral follicle development in sheep
4 pages (1000 words) , Literature review
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...apoptosis and luteolysis. Furthermore, the uses of Viagra will increase the regulation of folliculogenesis in sheeps, and this is because of high supply of nitric oxide, in which case the high nitric oxide will involve in controlling of both the ovarian apoptotic cell death and granulosa-luteal cell steroidogenic activities... The Effect of Sildenafil (Viagra) on Antral Follicle Development in Sheep By + State The Effect of Sildenafil (Viagra) on Antral Follicle Development in Sheep Continuous phases of cellular proliferation and differentiation characterizes the ovarian cycle, in which case it involves a series of ovarian follicle development. In sheep, folliculogenesis is the key process in reproduction...
The relationship between SC35 and E2F1 in the apoptotic response of head and neck cancer cells following cisplatin treatment.
8 pages (2000 words) , Research Paper
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...apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death (T?mar, Csuk, Remenar, Repassy, & Kasler, 2005). It has been found that E2F transcription factor is involved in promoting the transcription of the genes involved in DNA synthesis. Moreover, this transcription factor also enables cells to progress from the G1 phase of the cell cycle... ?The relationship between SC35 and E2F1 in the apoptotic response of head and neck cancer cells following cisplatin treatment Literature Background: Head and neck cancers are the sixth most common amongst all cancers globally and each year almost 100,800 new cases are diagnosed in Europe alone (Leemans, Braakhuis, & Brakenhoff, 2011). Over the last several decades, an increase in the...
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
4 pages (1000 words) , Research Paper
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...apoptosis may also elucidate the disposition of SLE patients to macrophage activation... ? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune syndrome which occurs due to interplay of genetic vulnerability and triggers arising from environmental factors (Soldevilla, Briones & Navarra, 2012). What happens is that in some people with genetic susceptibility, their bodies’ immune systems attack the cells and tissues which lead to inflammation and damage of the tissues. In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, the damage which occurs on the tissues is caused by immune complexes and antibodies. Since other fibromyalgia, CNS diseases, autoimmune diseases and...
LPS
17 pages (4250 words) , Literature review
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...Apoptosis Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiological response of cells to prevent the deleterious effects of eliciting inflammatory reaction. As opposed to necrosis that is characterized by cell swelling and content leakage, apoptotic cells decrease in size and break up into fragments that are taken up by phagocytes of the body (Kumar et al., 2011). 1. Mechanism Vital to the initiation of programmed cell death is the sequential activation of a group of cysteine proteases called caspases. Upon sensing the presence of cell injury, stress, or foreign material, two pathways are set... ?LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE Lipolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of bacterial origin ...
Pharmacology case studies
4 pages (1000 words) , Case Study
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...apoptosis and therefore disrupts the spread of cancerous cells. Therapeutic Use. Busulfan is used therapeutically in synergy with cyclophosphamide to produce a conditioning course of therapy before progenitor cell transplant protocols in Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia. The drug is also used widely in the used as part of the pre-transplant preparations for those patients requiring bone marrow transplants for advanced Myeloid LeuKaemia as well as other conditions... that are non-malignant. This is therefore a very important chemotherapeutic agent in the management of Myeloid Leukaemia and other non-malignant cancers due its apoptosis causing effects on target cancerous...
Lipopolysaccharide
15 pages (3750 words) , Literature review
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...Apoptosis Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiological response of cells to prevent the deleterious effects of eliciting inflammatory reaction. As opposed to necrosis that is characterized by cell swelling and content leakage, apoptotic cells decrease in size and break up into fragments that are taken up by phagocytes of the body (Kumar et al., 2011). 1. Mechanism Vital to the initiation of programmed cell death is the sequential activation of a group of cysteine proteases called caspases. Upon sensing the presence of cell injury, stress, or foreign material, two pathways are set... ?LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE Lipolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of bacterial origin ...
Identification and analysis of DNA repair mechanisms that contribute to resistance against nucleoside analogues
14 pages (3500 words) , Literature review
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...apoptosis are also circumvented . Most tumours that develop in the human body are substantially heterogeneous. This suggests that multiple mutations occur within human cancers driving the creation of tumours and the change in function between normal cells and cancerous cells . Thus, cancer can... ? Identification and analysis of DNA repair mechanisms that contribute to resistance against nucleoside analogues Contents Contents 2 0 Carcinogenesis and Cancer Treatment Resistance 3 2.0 Mechanisms in Cancer Cells 6 3.0 Nucleoside Analogues 7 3.1 Purine nucleobases and purine nucleoside analogues 10 3.2 Deoxyadenosine derivatives 11 3.3 Deoxycytidine analogues 11 4.0 Topoisomerases 12 5.0 The MRN complex 13...
Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and mitosis phase of the cell cycle
4 pages (1000 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis (programmed cell death) at the end of their life cycle. This process is progressed through a ‘cell cycle’ which mainly consist of four stages as G1 (gap 1), S (synthesis), G2 (gap 2) and M (mitosis). Cell cycle regulation and cancer are intersected fields and hence treating cancer is more or less done in targeting the cell cycle (Collins et al. 1997). During G1, the cells grow in size and prepare for chromosome replication... ?INTRODUCTION Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and mitosis phase of the cell cycle. Cancer in a living tissue is a condition where cell division occurs rapidly and continuously without entering the resting stage. Such cells divide and grow...
Age-related changes
4 pages (1000 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Apoptosis during Disuse Apoptosis, an internal coded suicide program, balances the cell survival and the cell death. This may be reduced by training in normal muscle. It is unknown how apoptosis is regulated during disuse. The tumour suppressor protein p53 plays an important role in determining whether the cell growth is arrested or Bax-associated apoptosis is executed in various cell types. p53: may induce apoptosis by the induction of oxidative stress caused... by an inappropriate up regulation of Mn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase; may play a role in apoptosis mediated muscle wasting; and, is increased in quail muscles after 7 or 14 days of unloading....
Flow Cytometery
1 pages (250 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis, membrane potential and intracellular PH, expression of intracellular... Flow Cytometry FLOW CYTOMETRY The technique of singling out cells and cells particles such as organelles, and enumerating the distinctive population has been on a high demand since current studies in biology has emphasized on looking at diverse cell types. The two techniques laser-activated cell sorting and flow cytometry, function in a way that they identify, analyze, and purify a single cell that appears with a specific mark (Macey, 2007 p175). Biological studies have been advanced by flow cytometry this is through enhancing the analysis of cell cycle distribution and DNA content, cellular viability, calcium flux,...
Snake Venom Protein Paralyzes Cancer Cells
11 pages (2750 words) , Research Paper
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...apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis (Egleton et al., 2009). Introduction of apoptosis is one of the most significant mechanisms of numerous anticancer agents (Alama et al., 2011). Snake venom disintegrins, on the other hand, are the short molecular weight molecules with diverse potency, structure and specificity originally secluded from viperid venoms, typically hold integrin, a cause of growth of remedials for cancer treatment (Alama et al., 2011). Integrins are significant in cell migration, cell... Snake Venom Protein Paralyzes Cancer Cells Introduction Snake venoms are basically the secretion of poisonous snakes, which are produced, as well as stored in particular regions of their body...
Biochem Lit
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis by another study. Finally, yet another study concluded that the FadA heterotrimeric G protein complex was found to be a part of the signal transduction pathway that promotes apoptosis in hyphae exposed to chemical farnesol. Thus on the same lines... In their paper, “Differential Roles of the ChiB Chitinase in Autolysis and Cell Death of Aspergillus nidulans” Kwang-Soo Shin and co-workers explored the mechanism controlling autolysis , a natural process of enzymatic self degradation of cells. FlbA is a regulator of G protein signaling. In the absence of this regulator, autolysis becomes a predominant phenomenon. This was confirmed by flbA deletion (∆flbA) mutant which exhibited uncontrolled...
Antibiotics and nephrotoxicity
4 pages (1000 words) , Term Paper
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...apoptosis pathway (Quiros et al, 2011). There are several other mechanisms... ?Antibiotics are drugs that are mostly cleared by renal excretion and can be highly nephrotoxic. Explain the mechanisms of nephrotoxic acute renal failure with some antibiotics. One of the main dangers of antibiotic use is the potential to cause nephrotoxicity in some susceptible patients. This can occur through a number of mechanisms, which will be outlined here. One of the most common groups of antibiotic, the aminoglycosides, cause kidney damage in around 10-25% of patients. The main cause of this is tubular obstruction, caused by alterations in the tubular cells. Additional causes of reduced glomerular filtration can also...
BIOTECHNOLOGY
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis. Describe how we could we take advantage of apoptosis in the treatment of disease? What would be the advantage(s) compared to traditional approached? Hint: Think cancer, hepatitis, etc. According to MedicineNet (2008, pg. 1), necrosis is “The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ischemia (lack of blood flow).” According to CancerTherapy.net, “the P53 gene causes the abnormal cells to commit suicide.  This is called aptosis.” The main difference between these two is that necrosis is not planned and that aptosis is programmed by the body. Aptosis is a necessary part of human life and is not a bad... Biotechnology: Week 8 a. Briefly describe angiogenesis? Do...
Critical Review of a molecular cancer article
3 pages (750 words) , Download 1 , Book Report/Review
...apoptosis in cervical cancer cells” by Anna Jankowska et al., 2008. Introduction In this article, an innovative technique to lessen hCG levels founded on expression of an adapted UI snRNA as a study method of the hormone’s significance in biology of man’s cervical cancer cells. The UI snRNA property to block the buildup of particular RNA transcript when it attaches to its donor sequence in the three-terminal exon was utilized. In trying to determine whether the approach to the study was appropriate or not, this review will base... Critical Review of a Molecular Cancer Article A critical review of the article, “Reduction of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit expression by modified U1 snRNA caused...
Classic Galactosemia disease
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis (Williams &Wilkins. 562). The reason behind this is that osmotic enlargement of lens fibers significantly injures LEC endoplasmic reticular. Since the endoplasmatic reticulum is the major place of protein synthesis, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stressors can cause proteins to misfold. The succeeding build-up of misfolded proteins in the ER triggers the UPR or Unfolded Protein Response in the LECS. UPR starts apoptosis through numerous mechanisms, such as the release of the Reaction Oxygen Species (ROS). According to up to date findings, oxidative damage, UPR, osmotic swelling, and the consequential LEC apoptosis all have major roles to play in the commencement... ic Galactosemia disease Genes...
Describe the process of graft rejection in transplantation.
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...Apoptosis of the target cell is the ultimate step for the cytolytic processes involved in the mechanisms (Malhotra, 2011). Conclusion: The above study reflects on the mechanism or the process of graft rejection that occurs during transplantation. It has been obtained that the process involves the sensitization and effector mechanisms involving the T-cells and antigens and ultimately leads to apoptosis that damages the process and the cells performing in the process causing graft rejection. References 1... Process of Graft Rejection in Transplantation Introduction: Transplantation is a method that can be used to treat any malfunctioning of an organ within the body by transfer of cells, tissues or organs...
Application of Microscopy in Biomedical Sciences
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...apoptosis, adhesion in the multistep processes for the wound healing, and angiogenesis. For the epithelial cells, the most important factor of family TGFβ is the TGFβ 1. It also acts as the growth inhibitor and expresses the early gene JunB. TGFβ 1 also plays an important role for the morphology and transcriptional programme of cells. Endothelial cells differ from the epithelial cells, and show the additional features in order to achieve the specific functions. In these cells, the TGFβ 1 also controls the process of angiogenesis (Varon et al., 2008). TGFβ performs the dual role... Application of Microscopy in Biomedical Sciences Introduction: In the past Biologist were confined to the traditional...
Discussion part
12 pages (3000 words) , Lab Report
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...apoptosis) in vitro and cell-cycle arrest in the G2 phase (ONeill et al., 1999; Kalimutho et al., 2010). (Here Include how does satraplatin can induce P53) In the cell, p53 protein orchestrates the cellular response to DNA damage, together with the DNA repair machinery leading to either survival of the cell through damage repair or apoptosis (Liu and Kulesz-Martin, 2001). The tumour-suppressor protein, p53, functions by binding DNA, and stimulating the synthesis of protein p21 which, following DNA damage, interacts with cdk2, a cell division-stimulating protein (Coqueret, 2003). Complexing of p21 with cdk2 inhibits cell division. Thus, cells that lack p53 divide uncontrollably, and form... Discussion...
Classic Galactosemia disease
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis (Williams &Wilkins. 562). The reason behind this is that osmotic enlargement of lens fibers significantly injures LEC endoplasmic reticular. Since the endoplasmatic reticulum is the major place of protein synthesis, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stressors can cause proteins to misfold. The succeeding build-up of misfolded proteins in the ER triggers the UPR or Unfolded Protein Response in the LECS. UPR starts apoptosis through numerous mechanisms, such as the release of the Reaction Oxygen Species (ROS). According to up to date findings, oxidative damage, UPR, osmotic swelling, and the consequential LEC apoptosis all have major roles to play in the commencement... ic Galactosemia disease Genes...
Enzymatic Self Degradation of Cells
2 pages (500 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis by another study. Finally, yet another study concluded that the FadA heterotrimeric G protein complex was found to be a part of the signal transduction pathway that promotes apoptosis in hyphae exposed to chemical farnesol. Thus on the same lines... In their paper, "Differential Roles of the ChiB Chitinase in Autolysis and Cell Death of Aspergillus nidulans" Kwang-Soo Shin and co-workers explored the mechanism controlling autolysis , a natural process of enzymatic self degradation of cells. FlbA is a regulator of G protein signaling. In the absence of this regulator, autolysis becomes a predominant phenomenon. This was confirmed by flbA deletion (flbA) mutant which exhibited uncontrolled...
Biological Effects of Steroid Use
7 pages (1750 words) , Research Paper
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...apoptosis and modification of the levels of calcium in the cell. Endothelial cells, performing their normal function is crucial for cell growth and the repair of tissues (Michiels, 2003 from D’Ascenzo et al, 2007). These results have suggested that these are possibly the events that lead up to damage at a cell vasculature level (D’Ascenzo et al, 2007). Apoptosis is known to be essential to the development and differentiation of cells and any interference in this process can lead to damage (Michiels, 2003 from D’Ascenzo et al, 2007). In particular, the process of apoptosis in endothelial cells has been linked to be a primary stage in the development of atherosclerosis... Biological Effects of Steroid Use...
Cancer Cells
10 pages (2500 words) , Research Paper
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...apoptosis and regulation of cell division causes cancer.” It is most likely that, for cancer cells, mutations in certain genes coding for a protein essential to stop cell division and promote cell death prevents the cell from producing that protein, and from stopping the abnormal cells to divide. That may sound harmless at first, but upon... dyeninapey Academia-research 7 May, Cancer Cells: No Age Limits The Difference Lies With Aging Why do cells become cancer cells? To answer the question and pose a hypothesis, we must first understand the fundamental difference between normal and cancer cells: cancer cells do not mature, do not age, and do not undergo cell death like normal cells do. Aging is the...
Discuss how variation within the human genome might lead to cancer.
8 pages (2000 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis (Lokody, 2014: p154). Again, cancer cells have mutations that either delay or prevent programmed cell death responses, which enable the genetically unstable cancer cell to survive. Mutation of Proto-Oncogenes in Cancer Fundamentally, cancer is a disease that results from a failure in the regulation of tissue growth. The variation... How Variation within the Human Genome Might Lead To Cancer Introduction Cancer refers to a diverse array of illnesses with a common overall phenotype that involves the uncontrollable growth and proliferation of cells. Through a multistep process, cells in cancer acquire a series of genetic variations or mutations that result in unrestrained division and growth of...
Application of Microscopy in Biomedical Sciences
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...apoptosis. In this work, the cell nucleus was visualized with the same time of the actin cytoskeleton. By using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, the cell nucleus was visualized that reflected the fluorescent stain. The wavelength of the 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole absorption ranged between 358 nm (ultraviolet) and 461 nm (blue). Fluorescent Microscopy resulted into 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole visualization through the blue/cyan filter. Earlier study also characterised the fluorescence based on the absorption and other fluorescent properties. The fluorescence was expressed as the ratio between the number of emitted photons and number of absorbed photons. The fluorescent Microscope... ?Immunostaining...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
8 pages (2000 words) , Essay
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...apoptosis... ?Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis The lungs take in air through the wind pipe called trachea to its branching airway called bronchi. These branch down into very smaller bronchioles and then into millions of air sacs called as alveoli. Oxygen passes through these tiny walls of alveoli into the tiny blood vessels that are present near to them. Similarly the carbon-di-oxide is transferred from the blood vessels to the alveoli which are then removed out of the lungs through the process of exhalation. Thus the oxygen required by the blood vessels is taken in by the cells. The most important part of respiration is the alveoli. These alveoli are sometimes damaged by unknown causes and results in the...
Identification and analysis of DNA repair mechanisms that contribute to resistance against nucleoside analogues.
6 pages (1500 words) , Assignment
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...apoptosis are also not working normally, which means that the cancerous cell does not die when it should (Evan, Vousden 2001). Most tumours that develop in the human body are substantially heterogeneous. This suggests that many mutations occur in the cancer cells leading to the creation of tumours and to the change in function of normal cells compared to cancerous cells (Loeb Loeb & Anderson 2003. That is why cancer can be seen as a disease, or many diseases, which happen because of genetic abnormalities piling up in the cells (Huang, Wallqvist & Covell 2006). In each generation of cancer cells, significant mutation occurs within different cells... 0 Carcinogenesis and Cancer Treatment Resistance...
Lab report 3
12 pages (3000 words) , Lab Report
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...apoptosis in tumor cells. The bioavailability of these natural compounds is an important factor that determines their efficacy. Studies have shown... ?Bulk and nanoparticle forms of tea catechins and polyphenols exhibit opposite effects on DNA damaged lymphocytes of colorectal cancer patients Abstract Tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and other polyphenols such as theaflavins (TF) are increasingly proving useful as chemopreventives in a number of human cancers, but without affecting the normal cells. The polyphenols in tea are known to have antioxidant properties which can quench free radical species, and also pro-oxidant activities that appear to be responsible for the induction of...
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