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Multidimensional Chromatography
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...pharmaceutical applications of multidimensional chromatography Biochemical separation techniques have long depended on chromatographic modes that evolved into newer and more advanced forms with complicated procedures for separation and analysis. In fact, chromatography as a whole has found its application in all fields of natural and biological science, with extensive use in biomedical and biopharmaceutical research. The chromatographic separation procedure of test molecules using a wide range of critically engineered stationary and mobile supports depends upon the nature and structure of the molecules. Though individual chromatographic techniques like the various forms of liquid... Biomedical and...
Analysis of Paracetamol in Urine Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Hyphenated to Ion-Trap Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
4 pages (1000 words) , Assignment
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...chromatography (HPLC) and chromatography have been applied in paracetamol analysis in pharmaceutical preparations4. In this experiment HPLC was used to analyze this drug in urine. Normally, the formulation is in water preparations and simple filtration can be done to eliminate insoluble excipients. Filtrate analysis can be through HPLC with UV detection. However, direct analysis in urine or blood is not practical due to biological fluids have several other molecules that are UV active and do interferes with the analysis3. One way to approach such is to employ methodology based on HPLC and mass spectrometric detection which was used in this experiment. The advantage for this method... . As an...
Gas Chromatography
7 pages (1750 words) , Term Paper
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...gas chromatography: the gas chromatography techniques and applications, published by Sheffield Academic Press. Pp. 1-35. Armarego W.L., 2003. Columns in the gas chromatography: Purification of laboratory chemicals, published by Butterworth-Heinemann. Pp.17-20. Eli G., 2006. Two-dimensional gas... History of Gas Chromatography Chromatography is a Greek word which originated from the word chroma standing for the word color. It is a scientific technique that refers to separating mixtures. It comprises of two main different phases; mobile and the stationary phase. Gas chromatography is identified by the fact that the carrier gas is formed in the mobile phase. The carrier gases can be helium which is an...
Ion chromatography
6 pages (1500 words) , Essay
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...chromatography and spectrophotometry after its isolation in form of HCl. Advances in the technique of XRF spectrometry and development of TXRF technique for analysis of trace elements has led to its use in determination of levels of Cl in (U, Pu)C fuel as described by Misra and associates (2008). Application of routine XRF techniques to determination of Cl levels is a difficult and inaccurate procedure because of the low fluorescence yield and matrix effects. TXRF however, can be efficiently used due to negligible matrix effects and high... ? TABLE OF CONT INTRODUCTION 3 PROPERTIES OF X-RAYS 4 PRINCIPLE 5 INSTRUMENTATION 8 SAMPLE PREPARATION 10 DETECTION LIMITS 10 ADVANTAGES 11 DISADVANTAGES 11 MAJOR...
Distillation- Gas Chromatography Investigations
4 pages (1000 words) , Lab Report
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...gas phase. The temperature at which the liquid changes into vapor, in which case, the vapor pressure of a liquid at this temperature equals to the atmospheric pressure, and it is referred to as the boiling point. In the case where there are two compounds with a vast different vapor and pressures, then the two compounds can be separating through... Introduction Distillation is the technique often used in separating liquid mixtures. At a certain temperature, a pure liquid is known to have a specific vapor pressure (Harwood and Moody 145). Thus, heating the liquid often provides extra energy to the molecules. This energy is utilized by the molecules to change phase, that is, from the liquid phase into the...
CHIRAL CHROMATOGRAPY
4 pages (1000 words) , Research Paper
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...analysis of zaltoprofen." Acta chromatographica 17 (2006): 202. Kiran, M., et al. "Chiral Chemistry in Pharmacology–A Review." International Journal 1.4 (2012): 7-10. Beesley, Thomas E. "Review of chiral stationary phase development and chiral applications." (2011). Zhang, Yiwen, et al. "Chiral separation of pharmaceuticals by high performance liquid chromatography." Current Pharmaceutical Analysis 6.2 (2010): 114-130. Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Yacine.... of the of the Chiral Chromatography The separation of enantiomers is an important method of chemistry especially when relating to pharmaceutical preparations (Beesley and Scott, 2). Enantiomers are organic compounds with same structural and molecular formulas ...
Chromatography
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...chromatography, the retention factors (Rf) of the seven pure food dyes, red 3 (R3), red 40 (R40), blue 1 (B1), blue 2 (B2), yellow 5 (Y5), yellow 6 (Y6), and green 3 (G3), approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and dissolved in three different solvent systems, distilled water, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and 0.10% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The solvent solution that resulted to the best separation was then be used to identify the dyes in unknown mixtures. This experiment would then demonstrate the use of paper chromatography in analysis... SEPARATING AND IDENTIFYING FOOD DYES BY PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY The resolution of blue green 3, yellow 5, yellow 6, red 40, blue 2, and red 3, determined...
Comparison of Methods Used For Magnesium Analysis
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...Applications. Oxford: Blackwell Publications. Hoffmann, E. and Stroobant, V. (2007). Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications. 3rd ed. Sussex: John-Wiley & Sons. Huang, X. (2012). Preparation of Cation-exchange Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction Based on Monolithic Material And its Application to The Analysis of Soluble Cations in Milk By Ion Chromatography. Analyst, 136 (20), p.4289-4294. Widdowson, M. McCance, M. and Spray, M. (1951) The Chemical Composition of Human Body. Clinical Science, 10 p.113-125. Magnesium.com (2000) Magnesium . com - Data Bank. [online] Available at:...
Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Separation of Hexanes and Toluene
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...Gas Chromatography: Separation of Hexanes and Toluene Introduction According to Pavia et al., (56), the separation and purification of two liquids from a mixture requires the utilization of a method called distillation. The problem in the separation of two liquids is how to separate them. Hence, in the experiment two volatile liquids, namely; toluene and hexane shall be separated using fractional semimicroscale distillation. In this experiment, the two liquids, hexane and toluene, have specific boiling point temperatures in degrees... 13 September The objectives of the experiment were to determine if the observed results were in tandem to those found in the literature. Apart from successfully...
(GC Instrument Experiment) Determination of Ethanol Concentration in Biological Fluids using Gas Chromatography.
3 pages (750 words) , Lab Report
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...gas-liquid chromatography in the modern science has eliminated the complex nature of the matrix affecting the analysis of ethanol in blood previously (Jones and Pounder 12). The sample size employed in gas-liquid chromatography is also small hence making the method convenient for analysis of small samples. In gas chromatography, the gaseous mobile phase, which is referred... Determination of Ethanol Concentration in Biological Fluids using Gas Chromatography Chemistry Lab Report 17 November2014 Abstract The total amount of ethanol in a given amount of blood represents the blood alcohol concentration (BAC), which is measured in grams of ethanol per deciliter of blood in the United States (International Cen...
Pharmaceutical
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...Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Law and Commerce , 15:357-365. Eisenberg, R. (2001). The Shifting Functional Balance Of Patents And Drug Regulation. Patents and Regulation , 19(4):119-135. Findlay, R. (1999). Originator Drug Development. . Food and Drug Law Journal , 54:227-232. IUS Mentis. (2011). Retrieved August 28, 2011, from Crash course on patents: What is a patent and why is it useful: http://www.iusmentis.com/patents/crashcourse/whatis/ Sergio, B. (2001). The Application of the Essential Facilities Doctrine to Intellectual Property Licensing in the European Union and the United States: Are Intellectual Property Rights Still Sacrosanct?. . 11...
Determination of the relative proportions of caffeine and aspirin in proprietary analgesics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
2 pages (500 words) , Coursework
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...analysis as some solution may remain in the apparatus. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. Incorrect sampling 2. Incorrect integration – especially poor peak detection and false base line positioning. 3. Missing capacity control by statistics LINEARITY OF CALIBRATION GRAPH A plot of peak area/peak height vs. concentration gives a straight line graph described by the equation y =mx +c Where y is the response of the instrument (analytical signal/peak area/peak height) X is the concentration M is the slope C is the constant From graph... From the graph of caffeine y = 513930X –5000000 From the table Y = 69124507.67 This implies that: 69124507.67 =513930X...
Mass spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy
9 pages (2250 words) , Essay
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...pharmaceutical companies use it to determine the structure of novel compounds. Mass spectroscopy is a powerful technique used for separation processes such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and supercritical fluid chromatography, due to its sensitivity and ability to classify chemical compounds successfully. The most common forms of hyphenated mass spectroscopy include gas chromatography/MS, liquid chromatography/MS, ion mobility spectrometry/MS, and tandem MS/MS. Gas chromatography/MS is used mainly to separate compounds. Liquid chromatography/MS is also used... Mass spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy Spectroscopy, or spectrometry, is the science that studies the...
Strategic Analysis report on pharmaceutical sector company - GlaxoSmithKline (gsk)
12 pages (3000 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Analysis Report on Pharmaceutical Sector Company: GlaxoSmithKline al Affiliation Table of Contents Table of Contents 2Executive Summary 3 Introduction 3 Industry Overview 3 Macro Environmental Analysis 4 Competitive Environment Analysis 6 Internal Company Analysis 9 Mission statement: 9 Diversity statement: 9 Life statement: 9 Values and behaviors 10 Evaluation of Business and Corporate Strategies 10 Identification of Major Strategic Issues Facing Organization 11 Conclusions and Recommendations 12 Reference List 14 Towse, A. 2014, “The UK Pharmaceutical Market”, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 10 no. 2, pp.1425. 14 Executive Summary The UK pharmaceutical market is the sixth largest in the world... Strategic...
Smarties Chromatography
4 pages (1000 words) , Research Paper
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...chromatography, will find out what makes up the colors of Smarties, one of the most popular, if not colorful, candies today. This is why food is made to be visually appealing as much as they ought to appeal to a person's sense of taste. One of the most common methods of utilizing this appeal comes in the colors foods are presented to us. Experiment: Smarties Chromatography The title of the project will be Smarties Chromatography and the main objective will be to identify the colors that make up Smarties candies... Introduction People are naturally attracted by color. Most people rely on their sense of sight to analyzing their environment and making choices. This experiment, using principles in...
Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC).
7 pages (1750 words) , Term Paper
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...analysis and application of this theory leads to the Van Deemter equation. This equation relates the variance per unit length of a separation column to the linear mobile phase velocity by considering several factors. They are physical, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of a separation. The physical factors are such as; A) Eddy diffusion. B... ?Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography Background Chromatography is a method of separation utilized in laboratories for separation of chemicals dissolved within the same solvent. This is otherwise known as a mixture. It was developed by a Russian-Italian scientist (Mikhail Tsvet) in 1900s. It was further developed and improved by Archer John Porter Martin and...
Nalytical Analysis of Anti-Depressants in Human Plasma Using Liquid-Liquid Chromatography
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...chromatography is a method that has been used to measure the plasma concentration of both the antidepressants and the resulting metabolites. Liquid-liquid chromatography is basically used in the extraction and analysis of antidepressants. The process involves the extraction of the drugs in neutral forms... ? Antidepressants are drugs used for treating patients diagnosed with depression. Most antidepressants function by inhibiting the action of neurotransmitters using a range of mechanisms that target intermediate compounds. Antidepressants are usually categorized on the basis of their chemical structure and an example of drugs in this group is the tricyclic antidepressants. Anti-depressants can also be...
CHROMATOGRAPHY (ANALISIS CHEMISTRY)
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...Chromatography is a technique employed for separating a mixture of substances into individual components by employing a stationary phase (usually a solid or a liquid supported by a solid substance) and a mobile phase which could either be a liquid or a gas. Modern HPLC is an advancement of the much simpler paper and thin layer chromatography which had been effectively employed for identifying components of a mixture. The principle behind the phenomenon is the different rates of transfer or travel of the individual components dissolved in the mobile phase onto the solid framework of the stationary phase. In thin layer chromatography, a thin, uniform... Common Features of all Chromatographic Separation...
Gas Prices: Data Analysis Using Descriptive Statistics
3 pages (750 words) , Download 2 , Research Paper
...Gas Prices: Data Analysis Using Descriptive Statistics The price levels of gasoline and other sources of energy vary over time; however, there is a distinct variation in the prices of gasoline according to geographical regions, a fact that can be explained by diverse factors. The United States Department of Energy classifies different regions in the country according to their geographical placement, and this research study will try to compare the differences in gasoline process according to these regions. This study will be done through an application of descriptive statistics to price data for the different regions. This is done by correlating the price data, refinery locations... , increases...
Analysis and Application: Sentencing
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...Analysis and Application: Sentencing Analysis and Application: Sentencing Introduction This paper briefly examines the specifics of sentencing in the U.S. Its main goal is to provide the overview of sentencing schemes applied in the American judicial system, as well as discuss the challenges of constitutional rights disregard in relation to sentencing. Special attention is given to the three-strike law and evaluation of its effectiveness since the time it was passed. Goals and Types of Sentencing Sentencing is defined as “an imposition of punishment on an offender following conviction for a criminal offense” (Champion, 2008, p.2). The major goals of sentencing are as follows: 1) to promote... ...
INTEGRATIVE ANALYSIS: CASE APPLICATION
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...Analysis: Case Application of Stevie Fielding Affiliation with more information about affiliation, research grants, conflict of interest and how to contact Integrative Analysis: Case Application of Stevie Fielding SECTION 1: NARRATIVE OF THE MOVIE ‘STEVE’ Stevie is a feature documentary film, directed by the “award winning director Steve James of Hoop Dreams,” and it narrates the saga of Stevie, through illustrating how “years of poverty, neglect and abuse” can wreck the life of a small boy and affect his development into a mentally healthy and responsible individual (Stevie, 2004, p.3). The movie, which begins with William Falukner’s philosophical thought, “The Past is Never Dead... ? Integrative...
Analysis and Application
5 pages (1250 words) , Case Study
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...Analysis and Application On the biological factors leading to the condition of Cassandra, she may be experiencing disorders of brain circuits which originate from the ways in which she was brought up by her parents and the experiences she underwent. In addition, the crisis can be explained in terms of the genetic make up of the client and the experiences she has undergone in the development stage. The idea is that Cassandra may have developed the mental illness while growing up in stressful situations. Cassandra grew up witnessing her father, an alcoholic, constantly abuse her mother. She even admits that she was sexually abused by her father. These...
Gas Prices - Data analysis using descriptive statistics
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...Gas Prices: Data Analysis Using Descriptive Statistics The price levels of gasoline and other sources of energy vary over time; however, there is a distinct variation in the prices of gasoline according to geographical regions, a fact that can be explained by diverse factors. The United States Department of Energy classifies different regions in the country according to their geographical placement, and this research study will try to compare the differences in gasoline process according to these regions. This study will be done through an application of descriptive statistics to price data for the different regions. This is done by...
Communication Analysis and Application
3 pages (750 words) , Essay
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...Analysis The research... ? Which is more important? IQ or EQ? I. Introduction Traditionally, society has always been biased for Intelligence Quotient (IQ) as the sole measurement of intelligence. It has been thought that to do better at anything, one has to have a superior cognitive intelligence or IQ inorder to succeed. As such, IQ has always been regarded as a predictor of success in everything that we do. As it has always been, academic excellence has always been stressed as an appropriate preparation for an individual to succeed in anything. Emotion on the other hand has been traditionally regarded as a weakness and irrelevant. It has been thought that emotion has no bearing in making an individual...
Analysis and Application Paper
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...analysis. The reason as to why televisions have... ? Cultivation Theory Cultivation theory Introduction In recent years, scholars have seen it fit to develop communication theories that are likely to reduce the rates of divorces that result from inadequate communication between spouses. Ideally, communication theory in the field of information is a technical process that seeks to study the human communication practice. The origin of communication theory linked to the establishment of the information theory dated in the 1920s, but the major breakthrough for this theory was because of the 1948 theory by Shannon Claude. From its inception, communication theory has evolved because of expansive research in...
Case Analysis Application Paper
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...Analysis Application Paper The scenario family has some serious problems especially the father, who is exhibiting symptoms of alcoholism and the six-year-old who is demonstrating even more troublesome behavior. The parents should be seeking immediate help for the child, but it is possible they are so caught up in their own dysfunctionality that they cannot see the warning signs that this child is displaying some worrisome behavior. John may not believe he has a problem with alcohol, so his seeking addiction counseling may not be likely. The rest of the family needs therapy focusing on Bowen’s theory of Multigenerational Transmission Process, Societal Emotional Process, Nuclear Family... ?581118 Case...
SESSION 2 BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS AND OSMOMETRY
6 pages (1500 words) , Lab Report
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...GAS ANALYSIS AND OSMOMETRY Aim: To conduct a blood gas analysis using optical technology for the measurement of blood gas parameters.To find out the osmolar properties of urine using various phenomenon related to the temperature and time. PART A: BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS Introduction: The Osmotech OPTI TM CCA blood gas analyzer uses optical technology for the measurement of blood gas parameters. The sensors are enclosed in a single use cassette. Principle: The optical sensors in the OPTI cassette are designed in a way that the analytes bind with the fluorescent sensor molecule. The sensor molecule is selective for the specific analyte is the pH sensor molecule will only react with the H... SESSION 2 BLOOD GAS ...
Analysis and Application
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...Analysis and Application of the Voices from the Field In reply to your request, this is a significant assessment of the voices from the field. The fundamental basis of the study is that there has been a growing dilemma of youth gang violence in Central America. Youth violence is a great worry since it affects the country’s safety and the health of the public. However, some of the strategies put in place so as to address the problem are not successful. It has been noted that the approaches lead to the infringement of human rights hence leading to serious lawful challenges. Violent gangs have been reported to be taking part in injurious actions such as drug abuse. In addition... The Judge 18, April Re:...
Case Analysis Application Paper
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...Analysis Application Paper The scenario family has some serious problems especially the father, who is exhibiting symptoms of alcoholism and the six-year-old who is demonstrating even more troublesome behavior. The parents should be seeking immediate help for the child, but it is possible they are so caught up in their own dysfunctionality that they cannot see the warning signs that this child is displaying some worrisome behavior. John may not believe he has a problem with alcohol, so his seeking addiction counseling may not be likely. The rest of the family needs therapy focusing on Bowen’s theory of Multigenerational Transmission Process, Societal Emotional Process, Nuclear Family... 581118 Case...
Market Analysis of the Natural Gas industry in Mexico
4 pages (1000 words) , Case Study
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...Analysis of the Natural Gas industry in Mexico Introduction Mexico is recognized to be one of the largest oil resource bases in the American continents. Energy sector in Mexico is relatively well-developed due to many years the country is involved in oil activity. While the country has a strong skills base and substantial energy bases, energy resources production has been declining for several years. However, recent liberalization reforms of the energy sector are viewed by experts as a great opportunity for the country to attract foreign direct investment and revive the natural gas and oil sector. The aim of this research is to provide a brief overview of the current stage of the natural gas...
Pharmaceutical Marketing
5 pages (1250 words) , Essay
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...Pharmaceutical Marketing Introduction The pharmaceutical industry is the industry that is involved in researching, developing, producing and marketing of drugs that have been licensed to be used as medications. The industry is also involved in marketing the pharmaceutical products and what many people do not agree upon is that the pharmaceutical marketing affects both the professionals and the patients who use the pharmaceutical products. It is important to note that the industry is subject to numerous laws and regulations which address the industry's activities pertaining to testing, patenting and marketing of drugs. One of the most controversial areas of pharmaceutical industry... s: Effects of...
Thin Layer Chromatography
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...Chromatography is a collection contained of butan-1-ol, water and acid. But butan-1-ol isn’t a suitable dissolvent for amino acids except it is hydrous. D) Based on the condition of the experiment, the amino acids that shows to have the closest Rf values are grouped into 3 set: Group A: Glycine, praline... and Aspartic acid with Rf values of 0.4. Group B: Tryptophan, Phenyl and Lucien with Rf values of 0.7. Based on the structure of the amino acids in this practical, group B have greater side sequence compared to group A. Furthermore, the movement level of amino acids remainder on the dissoluble on the side sequence in the solvent. The segregation of amino acids rely on the way they are used...
Critical analysis of color application
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...Analysis of cross‐cultural color emotion. Color Research & Application, 32(3), 223-229. Gombrich, E. H. (1977).Art and illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation (Vol. 5). London: Phaidon. Hemphill, M. (1996). A note on adults color–emotion associations... Color and Category in Picasso’s Jeune Fille Endormie Color is essential to any kind of artwork, but is especially important in more abstract forms, such as cubism. This paper will analyze the use of color in Pablo Picasso’s cubist work Jeune Fille Endormie. Jeune Fille Endormie, pictured below, is an important work of Picasso’s, made in 1935 when he was already an incredibly established artist and looking to move beyond cubism...
Thin Layer Chromatography of lipids
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...Chromatography of Lipids Thin Layer Chromatography of Lipids Q G (a) Egg contains two types of lipids. The first category is non-phosphorylated lipids and includes cholesterol esters, cholesterol and triglycerides (Nollet & Toldra, 2012). The second category is phospholipids. Phospholipids contain an extremely polar phosphate ester group and thus it is polar. Therefore, the material that remained at the origin of the egg lanes is likely to be the phospholipid component since it does not dissolve in non-polar solvent. (b) Investigating the nature of the material that remained at the origin in the egg lanes follows the same experimental procedure but with a polar solvent. The material... Thin Layer...
Analysis of technology system/application
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...Application of the Electronic Health Record System al affiliation In the health care system, technology is widely applicable in various systems such as registration of patient, patient self-monitoring, laboratory testing, and data monitoring. In addition surgical procedures are more precise by sophisticated medical equipment making treatment effective. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients is now achievable through technology. Technology has enabled hospitals to be more competent, providing patients with improved patient care that results to positive outcome. Information technology encompasses mobile technologies, electronic medical records, and...
Pharmaceutical Industry
3 pages (500 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Pharmaceutical Industry We can define the pharmaceutical industry as the industry that discovers, develops, makes, and sells various licensed drugs and medicines that apply in the medication of distinct disorders or ailments (Laws.com, 2013). The pharmaceutical industry entails pharmaceutical companies that have the authority to deal with a wide variety of generic and brand drugs and medicines and medical devices (Laws.com, 2013). Subject to the significance of medical sector and the potential side effects and potential dangers associated with medicinal drugs produced in this industry, the federal government regulates the...
Pharmaceutical microbiology
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...Pharmaceutical microbiology Describe and discuss the risks associated with aseptic preparationof the item. The risk of intravenous therapy may include the following; Infection –this may occur when the product is contaminated with bacteria or any microbes are infused into the patient. People’s contamination to the product continues and is the most common source of IV risk which may cause serious infection to the human body. Air embolus-it usually occurs because some of the solution is given using infusion pumps equipped with an alarm that alerts if any case the air is in the IV line. Allergic reaction –if the patient have an allergic reaction to a given drug which is administered parentally... microbiolog...
NIGERIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY: OIL AND GAS SECTOR ANALYSIS
20 pages (5000 words) , Download 1 , Term Paper
...Gas Sector Analysis Table of Contents Introduction 3 Industry Overview 3 PEST Analysis 7 Big Issues and their future implications 12 Porter’s five Forces Model 13 Competition within the industry 17 Response to the outside competition 17 Conclusion 18 Reference List 19 Appendix 22 Introduction Nigeria is well known for its huge abundance of natural resources, especially hydrocarbons. It is ranked as the tenth largest oil producer in world, third in Africa and most productive oil producer in the region of sub-Saharan Africa. The economy of Nigeria is largely dependent on the oil, which contributes to almost 95 percent of foreign exchange income. In the year 1956... ?Nigerian Petroleum Industry: Oil and Gas ...
Pharmaceutical Ethics
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...Pharmaceutical Ethics And Practice in UK _______________________________ Name of Student _________________________ Date of Submission Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 2.1. Key Principles 2.2. Role and Responsibilities 2.3. Ethical Development 2.4. Advertised Drugs 3. Discussion 4. References 5. Commentary 6. Learning Diary 1. Introduction Pharmacists play... New Raises Standards Of...
Pharmaceutical indusrry
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...Pharmaceutical Industry: Quarterly Journal of Economics. New York: Random House, 2004. Print. Scherer, F. M. The Link between Gross Profitability and Pharmaceutical R&D Spending. Michigan: Health Affairs, 2001. Print. Wardell, W. M., and Lasagna, L. Regulation and Drug Development. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute 1975. Print. Waxman, H., Durbin, R. J., and Kennedy, E. M. New GAO Analysis of Drug Development Refutes Industry Myths. Washington DC: U.S. Congress, 2006. Print.... Determination of the research and development costs for new prescription drugs. Patent is an essential part in facilitating new mechanisms for innovations. To bring innovations into the market without minimization,...
PHARMACEUTICAL COMMERCIAL
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...Pharmaceutical Commercial" The present era immensely relies on pharmaceuticals and this has made them incredibly imperative. They are not only responsible for health and wellbeing of the people but also enable them to recuperate from appalling injuries, trauma, stress, ailments or diseases. Pharmaceuticals have brought a revolution in our lives. They have not only influenced human beings but has brought drastic changes in animal and plant kingdoms. It is therefore pharmaceuticals have affected the inhabitants of the planet by making life more expedient and trouble-free, it enables us to mend those issues and ailments...
Pharmaceutical Industry
2 pages (500 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...pharmaceutical company will need to have: the preclinical testing data and findings from the laboratory studies, the manufacturing information, clinical protocols and investigator information in the form of an Investigator's Brochure which will contain all the information about the study drug (MHRA 2006). This information will be required by the licensing authority, which in the UK is the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency as part of the application for a Clinical Trials... Phase trials are primarily concerned with assessing the drug's safety and tolerability and are the first step in testing new investigational medicines in humans. The patients in these trials usually number 20-100...
Project risk analysis and assessment in oil and gas industry
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...analysis in oil and gas industry The risk and uncertainty in the oil project appraisal stage is extensive because of numerousunverifiable parameters and restricted data included. Moreover, the declining of the generation and field revelation, expanding working cost together with low oil value include chance and make the complication to the petroleum business (Simpson et al., 2000). In this manner, a superior seeing in the danger and vulnerabilities in ahead of schedule venture stage to give the great data to choice making is fundamental. It can be fulfilled by enhancing the reasonable premise, methodology, system, and useful premise for risk and uncertainty investigation in venture. However... Risk...
Abalytical Toxicology
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...gas through the needle forces the analytes towards the GC apparatus, ensuring sharp peaks i.e. better peak resolution (Musshof et al., 2002). SPDE has been successfully used in a number of applications, including the determination of pesticides in water samples (Lipinski, 2001). A predecessor of SPDE is the technique of inside needle capillary adsorption trap (INCAT) which has been applied in the analysis of mixtures of volatile organics by GC (Shojania et al., 1999). The automated SPDE... Amphetamine (R,S phenyl-2-propanamine - AM) and methamphetamine (R,S-N-methyl phenyl-2-propanamine - MA) are powerful stimulants of the central nervous system. They are commonly used in pharmaceutical applications,...
XYZ Pharmaceutical.
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...Pharmaceutical privatelimited organized a press conference. Whether you're teaming up with several sponsors to help the less fortunate or holding a press conference to announce a new product's release, press conference can go a long way in giving you a much needed cushion in this cut throat competition. Financial statements can help the company immensely in finding out the financial position of the company at a given point of time. As organizing a press conference requires lots of money, it is pivotal to know the financial position of the company as well as the financial... One of the easiest ways for the company to receive free media attention is through media events. Taking this into account, XYZ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
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...applicable. (Cannon, J. 2007) The Rate Theory: An alternative model available to determine the effects produced by drug molecule by binding to the receptors are based on the rates of association and dissociation of drug to and from receptors. This model was introduced... 1. In which region of the electromagnetic spectrum do most drugs absorb? Define the term chromophore and describe the most common chromophore found in drug molecules. Most drugs absorb in the UV region of the light spectrum. The color of the organic compounds is due to the presence of certain multiple bonded groups called chromophores. Chromophore is a group or a moiety which is capable of selective light absorption resulting in colorat...
Application of Concept Analysis to Clinical Practice
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...Application of Concept Analysis to Clinical Practice Affiliation with more information about affiliation, research grants, conflict of interest and how to contact Application of Concept Analysis to Clinical Practice Introduction: A concept analysis is a process intended to make the student or the researcher familiar with a concept that is analysed. A concept is generally in form of one or two words that express the meaning, understanding or feelings of the individuals between or among each other within a same discipline. In connection with nursing, concept analysis is often used and this...
Application of concept analysis to clinical practice
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...Application of Concept Analysis to Clinical Practice Application of Concept Analysis to Clinical Practice The concept applied in clinical practice is confidentiality. It is an essential element in clinical practice because all aspects of participation of the patient and medical practitioner revolve around confidentiality and consent. The medical practitioner is responsible for ensuring that all medical records are kept in a confidential manner. The reliability of information and data is an important keystone to good medical practices. In most cases, patients are content with undergoing clinical tests as long as they can entrust confidential information and data to medical professionals... and...
Credit Risk Analysis - Application of Logistic Regression
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...Analysis – Application of Logistic Regression The following is the definition of Logistic Regression provided by SPSS in its ial: “Logistic Regression is useful for situations in which you want to be able to predict the presence or absence of a characteristic or outcome based on values of a set of predictor variables. It is similar to a linear regression model but is suited to models where the dependent variable is dichotomous. Logistic regression coefficients can be used to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model.” In order to run binary logistic regression model to find out the dependence of various variables on Credit Risk, the following steps are taken... ?Credit Risk...
Analysis and Application of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
6 pages (1500 words) , Download 1 , Essay
...Analysis and Application of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy 0 Introduction Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) emerged as a widely used and dominant therapeutic approach in the current times (cited in Rafaeli, 2009). The Psychotherapy Networker (2007 cited in Ryan, et al., 2011) reported that approximately 67% of 2000 helping professionals employ CBT in their practice. The current increase in the use of CBT reflects its efficacy in treating mental disorders. The findings of previous studies showed that CBT is effective in treating mental disorders compared to other approaches (Leichsenring, et al., 2006). CBT pertains to the family of treatment approaches...
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