...Approach 2005 The System Approach presupposes that any living organism can't exist separately from its surroundings, because 'organisms are open systems: they cannot survive without continuously exchanging matter and energy with their surroundings' [Kelly, G., p.168]. Open systems are said to interact with other systems outside of themselves, when this interaction has two 'components: input, that what enters the system from outside, and output, that what leaves the system for the environment'. [Kelly, G., p.169].
The System Approach integrates both holism and reductionism. [Kelly, G., p.204]. According to this, the laws governing the parts determine or cause the behavior of the whole... Systems Approach ...