...assessment instrument that is used to measure the skills, knowledge, aptitude, or physical fitness of the test taker (Thissen and Wainer, 2001). An exam may be oral, written, or physical. Tests also vary in requirements, rigor and style. A closed book exam, for example, requires the person being examined to rely on memory to answer the questions. Examinations are also formal or informal. Formal tests normally result in test scores or grades. A standardized test is a type of exam that is usually consistently administered and scored for legal defensibility (Thissen and Wainer, 2001). This type of exam is used in professional certification, education, psychology... ?Examination An examination is a type of...