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Quantum mechanics of atoms
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...atoms al Affiliation The Physics greatly inspired me to a greater extent. This is a point whereby various concepts and theories were learnt. These concepts were very interesting because of their flexibility and practical nature [1]. So as much as one can be in a position of learning and grasping a number of topics and conceptual frameworks, a few or even one of them will be in a position of bringing in greater captivation as compared to the rest. For my case, the topic termed as Quantum mechanics of Atoms captivated me to a greater extent. This was on the basis of its conceptual framework as well as the general practical application and methodology. This paper hence sets basis... Quantum mechanics of...
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Electrons in Atoms
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...Atoms Research Paper INTRODUCTION Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles that move around the nucleus of an atom on paths commonly known as orbits (Jessa). Compared to the size of the core of an atom, electrons are much smaller. Their orbits are also known as energy levels. These orbits are imaginary paths that cannot be seen. The exact position of electrons on the orbits has never been calculated with precision. Scientists use estimations to refer to the location of a particular electron. An electron has a mass of 9.1095 x 10-31 and a charge of 1.6022 x 10-19 coulombs (Weisstein). This paper sought to study electrons in atoms; their history, science and applications. Both... Electrons in...
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Atoms of metals and LIDAR
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...Atoms of Metals and LIDAR Introduction Every day, one hundred metric tons of meteor debris enters the Earth’s atmosphere – generally in the form of metallic sodium, iron, silicon, potassium, magnesium, and calcium particles less than 1mm in diameter. When combined with high temperature in the upper atmosphere, these particles vaporize and form the Atomic Metal Layers located 80 to 105 kilometres above the Earth’s surface (ATHENA Research and Innovation Centre n. pag.). The Sodium Layer was discovered in 1929 by Vesto Melvin Slipher. Since then, other layers have been discovered such as iron, potassium, and calcium (Keese n. pag). Majority of observations...
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Atoms of metals and LIDAR
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...Atoms of Metals and LIDAR Introduction Every day, one hundred metric tons of meteor debris enters the Earth’s atmosphere – generally in the form of metallic sodium, iron, silicon, potassium, magnesium, and calcium particles less than 1mm in diameter. When combined with high temperature in the upper atmosphere, these particles vaporize and form the Atomic Metal Layers located 80 to 105 kilometres above the Earth’s surface (ATHENA Research and Innovation Centre n. pag.). The Sodium Layer was discovered in 1929 by Vesto Melvin Slipher. Since then, other layers have been discovered such as iron, potassium, and calcium (Keese n. pag). Majority of observations...
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The Electronic Structure of Atoms
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...atom that they get most stabilized. The electron are filled in increasing order of orbitals energy. 5... Chemistry Module The principle quantum number (n) correlates to “shell number”, or the size (roughly) of an orbital. What do the other three quantum numbers (l, m, and ms) correlate to? Azimuthal quantum number ‘l’ is second quantum number that describes the unique quantum state of an electron. It determines orbital angular quantum. It also determines the shape of the orbital. Magnetic quantum number is a whole number that describes the orientation of an orbital in space with respect to magnetic field. Spin quantum number ‘ms’ is related to spin of the electron that can be either clockwise or anticlock...
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Anything related to energy ,anything related to electricity, anything related to waves, anything related to atoms, atomic particles, or spectroscopy
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...atom, a negative charge, the electron, is spinning around a positive core, the nucleus, producing a loop of electric field as a result of this motion. This electric field in turn produces a magnetic field. The article then proceeds to describe the concept of a field, and the scientists who have worked on this relationship between the two fields. It then lists several principles or characteristics of this interchange of fields... Physics and Earth Sciences Article Summary 19 January The relationship between electri and magnetism The article by Bidisha Mukherjee, “The Relationship Between Magnetism and Electricity”, discusses the link ...
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Ionic and covalent Bonding
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...Atoms are the basic units of chemicals but often exist in unstable In order to gain stability, atoms combine with other atoms, either of the same element or of a different element, in a bonding process. Different types of bonds exist and ionic and covalent bonds, which this paper discusses, are examples. Definitions of the terms Ionic bonding defines cohesive forces between atoms of different chemical elements because of ions of opposite charged that attract one another. The bonding forms between two elements such that atoms in one of the elements lose electrons from its structure while and atoms of the other element gain the lost electrons into their structure... . The element that loses...
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Democritus
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...atom that surrounds a void. The reality account is the most superior among the presocratists... Lecturer Democritus Theory of Reality The atomists strived to understand the post-Eleatic issues. The issues illustrates that if change does not occur in real, then how does it take place in the observable world? Democritus addressed the issues by illustrating the presence of specific cosmos elements, which are real in Parmenidean perspective. By carefully studying the arrangement and also the rearrangement of the basic elements, the visible world can be illustrated without admitting changes of the real level. The atomist explains that there is only one category of real thing, the indivisible and tiny atom...
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Democritus
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...atoms and void. He notes that humans lack the capacity to determine the reality of a situation accurately. Instead, humans can only understand changes in bodily conditions and the things that flow from such bodies. Thus, it is impossible to understand how each thing is in reality. Democritus is famous for the quote “Sweet exists by convention, bitter by convention, color by convention. Atoms and void alone exist in reality.” The Democritus... Democritus Main Points of Democritus Theory of Reality The central point of Democritus’ theory of reality is that sensible things such as smell and color are unreal because they only exist by convention. Rather, the only things that exist in reality are atoms ...
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How the scientific method is illustrated by the development of the atomic model
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...Atomic Model Majority of scientists consider the theory of atomic matter as important in explaining the scientific method. This theory was proposed by John Dalton, and it explains that matter comprises of tiny, unchangeable, and indestructible atoms. These atoms normally pass through chemical reactions that make it possible to join and separate them. Evidence to this assertion is depicted under stoichiometry reactions (McLean, 3). These reactions were able to prove that a combination of elements was able to maintain their proportion after reacting with each other. However, not every scientist believed in this theory, because it was impossible to see atoms. Nevertheless, atomic... Scientific Method and...
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Ionic and Covalent Bonding
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...atom, there are two types of atomic bonding; covalent and ionic bonding. These bonds are different in terms of structure and property. Covalent bond is formed when two or more molecules share electrons, binding the two atoms in a fixed position (Atkins 2009, p.5). In connection to these, high energy is required to break covalent bonds. Formation of a bond between two atoms will depend on their electronegativity; the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself. In cases where the electronegative between two atoms differs significantly, for example, potassium and chloride, then an ionic bond is formed (Atkins 2009, p... Ionic and covalent bonding Ionic and covalent bonding Introduction In every...
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Chemistry chemistry
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...atoms in a network structure, such as that of carbon (diamond).Metallic bonds are also classified as intramolecular forces (Frederick, 1979, P.63)Intermolecular forces operate between, rather than within, the molecules of a covalent substance. This would include the attractions exerted by one molecule of a molecular substance on another, such as the force of attraction between water molecules in ice... CHEMISTRY QUESTIONS Presented Intramolecular forces operate within the molecules or fundamental units of a substance. This would include the attraction between positive and negative ions in a crystal of an ionic compound, the covalent bonds in a molecular substance as well as the covalent bonds linking...
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Reflection on Chemistry
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...atoms and molecules. Due to this, chemistry is often referred to as the science of atoms and molecules. Can we see, weigh and perceive these entities? Is it possible to count the number of atoms and molecules in a given mass of matter and have a quantitative relationship between mass and the number of atoms and molecules in an exact manner? The answer is precisely a No! Chemistry can be divided into branches according to either the substances studied or the types of study... ?Reflection on Chemistry Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the composition, structure and the properties of matter. These aspects can be best described and understood in terms of the basic constituents of matter: atoms ...
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Chemistry Bachelor Essay
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...atoms and the carbon atoms- 1200 2. Bond term between the carbon atoms- sp2 hybridization. 3. Bond term between the oxygen atom and the last carbon atom- sp2 hybridization. b) Yes, this molecule will have a delocalised orbital. This orbital extends wherever there is a double bond- over the first and second carbon atom, the third and the forth carbon atom and over the carbon atom and oxygen atom. Question 2 a) b) Bond order represents a value that is equal to the number of pairs of electrons in bonding orbitals minus the number of pairs in antibonding orbitals. It also corresponds to the number of electron pairs covalently bonding... Question a) CH2=CH-CH=CH-CH=O Angle term between the hydrogen...
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Aromaticity
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...atoms are sp2 hybridized, molecule is planar and conjugated, number of pi-electrons is 6 (4n+2, n=1), so it is aromatic. 2) Imidazole N1 possible configurations: a) , b) Configuration a), Sp2 hybridized, with one pi-electron. N2 possible configurations: a) , b) . Configuration b), Sp2 hybridized, electrons in the lone pair are pi-electrons, All atoms are sp2 hybridized, molecule is planar and conjugated, number of pi-electrons is 6 (4n+2, n=1), so it is aromatic. 3) N possible configurations: a) , b) Configuration b), Sp2 hybridized, electrons in the lone pair are pi-electrons, All atoms are sp2 hybridized... 1) Furan O , sp2 hybridization, electrons in the lone pair are pi-electrons. All...
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Astronomy
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...atoms. Most scientists believed that atoms could emit light and release energy but did not how this energy was released and therefore avoided the topic. Based on the above argument, the theory has changed adversely from molecular to atomic nature, from low to high acceptance, from knowledge to better information on the nature of the atoms. Evolution theory has been known to address the changes in the world systems over time. Observations have been made to indicate a micro world underneath all matter, a world of components of quanta. After the development of quantum theory, many... scientists have a devolved mind on accepting the atomic nature of the electromagnetic...
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Classical Physical Science
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...atoms strive to complete their outer shells. Metals have extra electrons so they want to donate, whereas, non metal are deficient so they accept electrons. In the process of loosing or gaining electrons these atoms become ions with positive and negative charge. Opposite charges attract and hold these atoms close together in a lattice structure forming multiple ionic bonds. Because these forces of attraction are very strong, ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points as lot of heat is required to break the lattice structure. Ionic compounds are soluble in water because water being... Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic Bonding: Ionic bonds are formed between metals and non metals only. All atoms st...
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Atomic absorption emission
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...Atomic Flame Emission Spectroscopy Technique Under Atomic Flame Emission (AFE) Spectroscopy, there are three basicapproaches that are used in the identification of Sodium. These include; The flame atomic absorption spectroscopy where a beam of light with wavelength that can be absorbed by the ground stately atoms is let through the fire. If a certain portion of the light is absorbed, then, this might lead to inference that the solution has Na+ ions. Next is the flame emission spectroscopy where the intensity of molecular bands, atomic or ionic lines is measured. In such a case, the molecular bands, atomic or ionic lines are emitted by excited molecules, atoms... Part 2: Determination of Sodium by...
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Chemistry
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...atomic theory states that atoms of any one element are all exactly like in every respect including masses but different from atoms of every other element. According to this theory since ethyl alcohol and dimethyl ether have the same composition by masses and exactly the same elements. One expects them to be the same and hence have similar properties which is not the case for example Ethyl alcohol has higher... Isaac Mutinda Order: 127810 CHEMISTRY WEEK Q This is a good advice because it will help in achieving accuracy and hence uncertainties in measurement are avoided. Q.2. These data are in accordance with the multiple proportion which states that when two elements combines together to form more than one...
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John Dalton's Atomic Theory
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...atomic theory, the world was almost a riddle to those who looked for rational reasoning. It was early Greeks who tried to analyze and explain nature. In about 460BC, Democritus, a Greek philosopher first introduced the concept of matter. However after this, the theory almost laid dormant till in 1803, John Dalton proposed his theory of atoms. John Dalton, born in the 18th century is known as the father of Atomic Theory and is mainly known for his work... on the atomic theory and Dalton’s Law for partial gases (Fishman, 2008). By education he was a chemist and later shifted his focus on researching and meteorology. Even though, today advanced research has shown that Dalton’s...
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Opportunity #6
2 pages (500 words)
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...atoms. The three scientists have performed reactions, which brought carbon atoms very closer to each other on a palladium substrate. This positioning would allow carbon atoms binding together for formation of molecules that may not be easy... Opportunity #6 Nobel prize in Chemistry Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki of Japan and Richard Heck of United s jointly developed the chemical investigating tool called “Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling in organic synthesis”, which could facilitate the scientists to develop new drugs and electronics. These Nobel Laureates were honored with Nobel Prize of 2010, some time back. The development of this technology would help in better and efficient linking of carbon...
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Science project
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...atomic level, and describes what makes a material and magnet. After understanding this, the effect of temperature is described on the molecular level, and an experiment is performed to test that effect. Theory Generally, ferromagnetic materials are those which can be made into strong magnets. The most important of these is Iron, which is used as a magnet in hundreds of applications. In all these applications iron is subjected to different conditions – most... Analyzing the Effect of Temperature on Magnetism of a Material [You can change the of [Enter [Enter Introduction This experiment studies the effects of temperature on the magnetism of a ferromagnetic material. It first explains magnetism on the atomi...
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Research paper on radiation
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...atoms produce the ionizing radiation. Unstable atoms... 14 December Radiation Radiation is a form of energy that is emitted from some source and is able to travel in the space as well as penetrate into other materials. There are two basic types of radiation, namely the ionizing radiation and the nonionizing radiation. The ionizing radiation produces ions in matter unlike the nonionizing radiation. In other words, radiation can be electromagnetic or particulate. Examples of electromagnetic radiation are x rays and gamma radiation whereas examples of particulate radiation are alpha radiation and beta radiation. The nonionizing radiation includes but is not limited to microwave, radio and light. Unstable...
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Examine and discuss the philosophical views developed by Epicurus
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...atoms that do not reduce into anything. With respect to this assertion about atoms, Epicurus mentioned in his letter to Herodotus that atoms... Philosophical views developed by Epicurus Introduction The basic aim of this essay is to examine the teachings of Epicurus based on a letter to Herodotus and Menoeceus and principal doctrines. In this regard, philosophical principles related to cosmos, human nature and life in particular should be examined along with the quotes to understand the meaning of the texts in detail. Structure and Composition of Cosmos Epicurus was influenced by Democritus, who was an atomists and physician. His philosophy was based on the fact that cosmos was made of components of ato...
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Organic Chemistry lab Determination of the Structure of a Natural Product in Anise Oil
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...atoms than would be required for every carbon atom to have the maximum amount of attached hydrogen atoms. The molecule’s index of hydrogen deficiency is 10. This implies that there are 5 rings or double bonds in the structure. Each one would then compensate for the two of the hydrogen atoms that are not there (Lehman, p.292-294). Upon catalytic hydrogenation of anise oil, a saturated compound... Task DETERMINATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF A NATURAL OIL PRODUCT IN ANISE OIL The purpose of this experiment is to isolate the anise oilmajor component and unveil its structure and identity with use of IR spectroscopy and determination of melting point. 1. Reaction mechanism The phase-transfer catalysis is aided b...
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Anomalies of Water
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...atoms and one oxygen atom makes the understanding of the force of attraction between the molecules quite easier. This is because the two hydrogen atoms have special way of bonding to the one oxygen atom whereby they get bonded to the top of the molecule. Subsequently, “this molecular structure gives the water molecule polarity or a lopsided electrical charge that attracts other atoms” (Home Science Tools, 2012). Because the molecule formed is charged to attract other atoms, it makes water gain its strong bonding, making surface tension and formation of droplets possible. Without any doubt, this anomaly of water makes it arguably the most important liquid, significant for life on earth... ANOMALIES OF...
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Chemistry
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...atoms or molecules which have a motion energy which we perceive as temperature. Atoms and molecules are constantly in motion and the more the energy the matter has the more the molecular movement and consequently a higher temperature. The amount of energy in atoms and molecules influences the intermolecular forces holding them such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces and thus the state of matter of a substance... Supervisor s of matter and phase changes John was a hardworking pot bellied businessman with a very pretty wife called Mary who loved chocolate. Due to his overweight John’s doctor advised him to do aerobic exercises daily in the morning and evening. Mary always went to the gym with John ...
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Photosynthesis
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...atoms fixed on ribulose 1,5-biphosphate originates from water or carbon dioxide, the investigation would use oxygen-18 isotope contained in CO2. The study would incubate algae plant in water and supply only radioactively labeled CO2 containing Oxygen-18. The study would then allow the process to proceed in the presence of sunlight for some minutes. Oxygen-18... Photosynthesis Photosynthesis relates to the process through which green plants and other specific organisms use sunlight in synthesizing carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide. The process occurs in three imperative stages including harnessing sunlight energy, synthesizing NADPH and ATP using energy harnessed, with the last step being...
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Critical Thinking Assignment
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...atoms lead to different physical and chemical properties for a compound?” The nature of bonding between atoms is caused by the variability in the physical and chemical properties for a compound. These properties are determined by the arrangement of the atoms, the electro negativity attraction and the number of molecules in an atom (John 54). The electro negativity strength determines the bonding properties of a compound. These in turn determine the physical tendencies of the metal. The periodic table presents these differences. Compounds are arranged such that elements with common chemical properties and reactions belong... Task: Critical Thinking Assignment “Does the nature of the bonding between...
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Shown in the instruction
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...Atoms link up to form molecules. These atoms might either be of the same element or of different elements. Depending on the characteristics of these atoms, molecular or ionic bonds are formed. The number of electrons present in each atom is what really determines the kind of bonds to be formed. Ionic substances Electronegativity is the tendency that an atom has to attract electrons in a chemical bond. An ionic bond is formed when the elements involved have significantly different electronegativity. This means that the probability of ionic bonds being formed is higher when the difference between the electronegativity of the two elements is greater. It is also important to note... Difference between Ionic...
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Catalysis and catalysts
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...atoms; at any given time will have the necessary energy for activation in order for the products to form. This principle is based on the collision particle theory (Gates, 1992) Maxwell Boltzman distribution diagram Reactant molecules interaction with catalysts to provide other routes for the response... Catalysts and Catalysis al Affiliations Catalysts and Catalysis Introduction A catalyst can be described as a chemical substance that influences chemical reaction rates by changing the required stimulation energy for the reaction to start. This is also known as catalysis and it can be demonstrated through the Maxwell-Boltzman speed Distribution diagram. A reaction does not use up the catalyst and it may...
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Carbon, Phosphorus, and Nitrogen Cycles
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...atoms essentially recycle themselves. The carbon atoms that exist in peoples’ bodies today have been used in numerous other molecules for as long as the atoms have been in existence. Since all living things are made of carbon, the carbon cycle is essential to life. Plants obtain carbon atoms and other important elements from the atmosphere through the process known as photosynthesis. The carbon-engorged plants are consumed by animals that eat plants, thus obtaining carbon atoms for themselves. When the animals and plants die and they decompose... ? Carbon, Phosphorus, and Nitrogen Cycles October 24, Carbon, Phosphorus, and Nitrogen Cycles The carbon cycle is the complex process through which carbon atoms ...
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Structure and Bonding of 5 different materials (Chemistry)
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...atom is covalently... ? Physical properties entail the melting point, boiling point, hardness, electrical conductivity and the ease of solubility in polar and non-polar solvents. This report discusses five materials, the bonding present between their molecules and its effect on the physical properties. Silicon dioxide is abundantly present in the form of sand. It is hard i.e. very difficult to break into smaller parts and is resistant to abrasion. It is a non conductor of electricity, insoluble in both polar and non polar solvents and has a high melting temperature of around 1700oC (Jim, 2010). Silicon dioxide forms a giant covalent structure/lattice, extending in all the 3 dimensions. Each silicon atom...
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Practical lab writeups - see pdf files
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...atoms 4.0 ppm Singlet of 6H = two Me groups 6.9 ppm 1H doublet at C6 (far from electronegative N) 7.8 ppm 1H singlet at C3 8.0 ppm 1H doublet at C5 (close to electronegative N) The presence of 3 1H peaks indicates that it is not a dinitrate product but a mononitrate product. The presence... Experiment Aromatic substitution Yield: Product weight: 5.350 g Molar weight product: 183.16 g/mol Product: 5.350 g 183.16 g/mol = 29.21 mmol Start matter: 37.63 mmol Reaction proportions: 1 : 1 Product yield: 29.21 / 37.63 * 100% = 77.62 % Melting point: The melting point of the product was found to be 94 ºC. This is very close to 95 ºC, the melting point of 1,2-dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene, so this is very likely to...
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The Hydrogen Bond
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...atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is shared with a second electronegative atom (typically an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom... The Hydrogen Bond is one of the most important components of existence and vitality. It occurs in many biological structures, such as DNA and proteinwhich are the "building blocks" of life. But perhaps the simplest system to understand the importance of hydrogen bonds is water. In liquid water and solid ice, the hydrogen bond is simply the chemical bond that exists between H2O molecules and keeps them together. Although relatively weak, hydrogen bonds are so numerous in water that they play a large role in determining their properties. The nature of the hydrog...
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Types of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers,composites)
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...atoms of these elements are held together through the use of metallic bonds to create a giant structure. The atoms of metals have different packing systems that include simple cubic packed, body-centered cubic and hexagonal close packed. Closest packing is hexagonal close packed with each atom surrounded by 6 other atoms is common in metals like magnesium. Cubic close packed is present in metals like aluminum and copper while body-centered cubic packed is present in metals like one form of iron and chromium while simple cubic is common in polonium. Hexagonal and cubic close... Type of Materials Metals These are optically reflective materials that are malleable and have high electrical conductivity. The...
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Manufacturing process for (intermediate modulus) IM Carbon fibre reinforced composites
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...atomic arrangement of the fiber is made during this procedure. The fibers then are cleaned and strained to the preferred fiber breadth. The straining aids align the particles within the fiber and delivers the root for the creation of the firmly bonded carbon crystals after... Manufacturing Process of IM Carbon Fiber reinforced Composite Introduction Carbon fiber is a fiber comprising at least 90%of carbon and is manufactured by pyrolysis of an organic precursor fiber that is in an inert atmosphere. This production takes place in the following phases: spinning, oxidation and carbonization. Spinning Acrylonitrile plastic powder is combined with another plastic, such as methyl acrylate or methyl methacryla...
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Explain how and why the LIGHT BULB works
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...atoms release. It is composed of small particles or energy packets. These particles have momentum and have zero mass. These are called photons and constitute the basic unit of light. When an atom releases photons, it indicates that the electrons in that atom have become excited or possess a higher level of energy. Electrons are negatively charged particles and orbit around the nucleus of an atom. These electrons have set orbital pattern; an atom has different levels of these orbits. Each electron revolves in fixed orbit based on the energy it possesses.1... Physics 14: PAY Project How and Why the Light Bulb Works Prof. Institute How and Why the Lightbulb Works Before Thomas Edison came up with the...
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X-ray crystallography
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...atoms and molecules. Crystallography is done by use of X-rays and the concept of diffraction of light or electromagnetic spectrum. Crystalline structures have an effect on a beam of incident X-rays and cause them to diffract into different directions. With this diffraction, it I easy to derive the three-dimensional outline or image projection... of the density of electrons as profiled in the crystal. The crystal creates a platform for developing a pattern for mean positions of the atoms in the crystal. One can also manage to determine the chemical bonds of the structure, say carbon in diamond crystals and the varying disorders of some of the crystalline structures. Carbon is...
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Science essay
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...atom and molecules. Atoms and molecules are engaged in random motion inside all matters. In solids these motions are small and hence solids have a finite shape. On the other hand in liquids and gases these atomic and molecular motions are large and hence it is difficult to assume particular shape to liquids and gases. In short, all... Heat The whole universe is believed to be made of two things: matter and energy. Both energy and matter are inter-convertible even though it is impossible for us to create matter or energy. In fact energy can neither be created, nor be destroyed even though we can transform energy from one form into different forms. Heat is a form of energy which created by the motion of...
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Describe the way that four philosophers we have studied treat the ideas of substance, space, centers, origins, and time. Then describe the common assumptions of the pre-Socratic philosophers on these topics, and how their world-view affected their ideas o
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...atoms”) below the threshold of perception, plus empty space) (SEP). He defined the atom as that which cannot be broken apart, but pointed out atoms are not the smallest possible entity. He states... Analysis of Four Philosopher’s Explanations For the Natural World The Pre-Socratics had an extremely limited view of physical phenomena. They only had access to mythological writings, and did not have the variety of philosophical ideas their predecessors did. Accordingly their ideas seem somewhat primitive to the modern world. . However, their ideas are extremely interesting to those interested in the history of ideas, and reveal a progression in the Western attempt to explain the physical world. The first thi...
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Practical lab writeups see pdf files
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...atoms 4.0 ppm Singlet of 6H = two Me groups 6.9 ppm 1H doublet at C6 (far from electronegative N) 7.8 ppm 1H singlet at C3 8.0 ppm 1H doublet at C5 (close to electronegative N) The presence of 3 1H peaks indicates that it is not a dinitrate product but a mononitrate product... Experiment Aromatic substitution Yield: Product weight: 5.350 g Molar weight product: 183.16 g/mol Product: 5.350 g 183.16 g/mol = 29.21 mmol Start matter: 37.63 mmol Reaction proportions: 1 : 1 Product yield: 29.21 / 37.63 * 100% = 77.62 % Melting point: The melting point of the product was found to be 94 C. This is very close to 95 C, the melting point of 1,2-dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene, so this is very likely to be the product...
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Mixture and a compound
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...atoms that form cations and anions is also given. Documentation... ? Mixture and a Compound al Affiliation This document contains elaborative differences between mixtures and compounds through their properties and formation, the variation of components that make them distinctive and how their components can be separated. It also describes how to differentiate an element and a compound despite being pure substances by results from decomposition. In the paper the metals, non-metals, and transitional elements are discussed to demonstrate the bonds. Ionic bonding formed between metals and non metals are explained and illustrated. Explanation following electrons transfer between the donor and receptor atoms...
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WA3
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...atom and two-oxygen atoms. Two atoms of oxygen are bonded to CO2. As a molecule, all the three atoms are bonded making it easy to absorb energy from the sun inform of infrared radiation. The infrared radiation is absorbed by the molecule and so the molecule vibrates. Vibrating molecule loses the previously absorbed radiation easily which in turn another molecule absorbs it. This goes in the cycle and in the end the infrared radiation is not lost, therefore, the surface of the earth is kept warm. Nitrous oxide, methane... Greenhouse Gases There is a bit of confusion in the general public about the outcome of greenhouse gases. Also, there hasbeen a misunderstanding on whether greenhouse gases are the main ...
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Heat Energy and Climate Change
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...atoms in a body and it can... Program 30 November Heat energy and climate change Heat is one of the forms in which energy may exist. It is an internal energy in a body and is transferred from hotter points to colder points. It is a significant for of energy in the contemporary society because of its positive and negative effects. While the form of energy is useful in industrial set ups such as in geothermal electricity generation, its effects environmental effects of global warming that also extend to health effects are evident. An understanding of heat mechanism, heat and mechanical work, and mechanisms of heat transfer is therefore necessary. Heat mechanism Heat energy emerges from behavior of atoms i...
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Science
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...atomic number 11. Sodium is soft and silvery white metal in color. Aside from one of the most abundant elements in the planet, sodium in nature belongs to halite group which means it is highly reactive. Aside from its silvery-white color, sodium is also waxy in appearance, can easily be cut by a knife because it is soft, it reacts with oxygen once exposed to air and forms sodium oxide film (Chemistry Explained, par. 1-60). This is the reason why a bright and shiny surface of sodium once cut lacks luster because... SODIUM A. What is Sodium? In order to understand what sodium is all about, it is important to discuss its physical properties, chemical properties and other related information. Discovery Humph...
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Article on Waves
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...Atoms and Particle Physics The article “Atoms and Particle Physics” on PhysicsPlanet.com explains how atoms combine to form compounds such as water and sulfuric acid. Atoms are made up of electrons, neutrons and protons. The number of each of these constituents and how they are arranged forms the different types of atoms. The particles that make up the atom were the only known particles for a long time, but the existence of other particles was suspected because of reactions that could not have happened without some... ?** Dear this writing is intended to serve you merely as a model and/or guide. Therefore please put in your own words/style to make it yourown great work. Thanks -- from, your writer **...
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NYOB: A novel approach to addressing Privacy concerns in Online Social Networks
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...atoms," and then replacing each atom with its encryption. At the core, if all the atoms of the same class compose a "dictionary," NOYB encrypts the index of the user's atom in this dictionary, and uses the ciphered index to pick the replacement atom from the dictionary. The approach is superior to other approaches because the cipher atom is a legitimate atom. NOYB... NYOB: A novel approach to addressing Privacy concerns in Online Social Networks Online social networking is an increasingly powerful tool of social communication and marketing that cannot be ignored by the corporate world any longer. However, this tool still continues to be marred with questionable privacy capabilities, making it...
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Amine/organic Chemistry
3 pages (750 words)
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...atom. The amines are primarily, a derivative of ammonia where the hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl group to form amine compounds. They are also a form of functional group that provides the amines with the property such that the chemical reactions with other compounds are similar, regardless of the size of the molecules because its hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbons like alkyl and aryl groups to form relatively stable compounds. Hence, even when amines react with different compounds, the pattern of chemical reactions is same. Body The general formula of amines is as follows... Introduction Amines are important organic compounds that are characterized by the presence of nitrogen...
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Engineering sceince
5 pages (1250 words)
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...atoms can be modeled as simple harmonic oscillators where inter-atomic bonds between atoms produces restoring forces in the atoms that are linear in there displacement from the equilibrium positions. This can be depicted by a swinging pendulum in a grandfather clock which can be modeled ad simple... ? ENGINEERING SCIENCE By Presented to Monday, June 01, Task Question Where T is the torque, m is mass and r is the radius Since Then T = I Effective diameter is (external diameter – wall thickness) = (54 – 3) mm =51mm = 0.051m Thus I = 1.9*0.0512 = 4.9419e-3 Acceleration, is given by =3600rpm = 376.991rad/s = 600rpm = 62.83rad/s therefore, ==130.90 Thus Torque, T = 130.90*4.9419e-3 since T = I =0.64689471N...
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