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Avian influenza
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...Avian influenza Avian influenza Avian influenza Avian influenza was not expected to cause disease in human beings. However in 1997, an influenza epidemic broke out in Asia and North East Africa (WHO, 2011). The avian subtype H5N1 had been incriminated for the several human diseases and deaths and was known to occur from infected poultry birds and farmyard animals as influenza A (CDC, 2009). The WHO had worked with the aims of identification of new cases and made attempts to reduce animal health and public health risks (WHO, 2011). The continuous effort by the World Health Organization had resulted in the...
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Avian flu
10 pages (2500 words)
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...Avian Flu Copyright Although communications is a broad science and an imperfect art, it is impossible to effectively manage a crisis without effective communications. The nature of crises differs and whereas a terrorist related blast or an industrial accident is likely to be a high speed spontaneous event, a public health crisis such as an influenza pandemic can be a relatively slow waiting game that can suddenly escalate. However, emergency or crisis management and communications plans are required to handle all types of incidents and crisis. The avian flu threat that has made itself evident recently as a result of the mutation of the influenza type A virus is a ticking time bomb that needs... ...
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H5N1 Avian virus
7 pages (1750 words) , Download 1
...Avian virus of the of the of the Abstract Avian Influenza or Bird Flu, as it commonly referred to, is an infection which is caused by the H5N1 virus. The natural hosts of this virus are wild birds, in particular water fowls, who carry these viruses in their intestines while themselves remaining asymptomatic. Recently, H5N1 virus is not only leading to an increasing number of epizootics, but has also been implicated in several epidemics in humans. The Avian influenza virus is unique in several aspects. It has a unique structure of the HA structural protein which not only confers host specificity to the virus but is also implicated in enhancing the virulence... of the organism. Moreover, this...
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Pandemic avian influenza
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...Avian (bird) flu is caused by influenza A viruses that occur naturally among birds. There are different subtypes of these viruses because of changes in certain proteins (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA]) on the surface of the influenza... A global disease outbreak is known as a pandemic. A flu pandemic takes place when a new influenza virus surfaces for which there is little or no immunity for humans, and for which no vaccine is available. Influenza viruses are highly unstable, genetically adaptable, and well prepared to elude host defenses. The disease spreads easily from person-to-person, causing serious illness, and can encompass the whole country and even the world in very short time. Avian...
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H5N1 Avian virus
7 pages (1750 words) , Download 1
...Avian virus of the of the of the Avian Influenza or Bird Flu, as it commonly referred to, is an infection which is caused by the H5N1 virus. The natural hosts of this virus are wild birds, in particular water fowls, who carry these viruses in their intestines while themselves remaining asymptomatic. Recently, H5N1 virus is not only leading to an increasing number of epizootics, but has also been implicated in several epidemics in humans. The Avian influenza virus is unique in several aspects. It has a unique structure of the HA structural protein which not only confers host specificity to the virus but is also implicated in enhancing the virulence of the organism... Running Head: H5N1 AVAIN VIRUS H5N1...
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Avian Flu Virus
8 pages (2000 words) , Download 1
...avian flu virus (H5N1) present to the human population Introduction: The avian influenza virus is normally an infective strain tothe birds only; however, the world now faces the threat of a human influenza pandemic arising from the recently emerged avian influenza H5N1 virus. Although of avian origin, H5N1 is of particular concern since it has recognised ability to be transmitted directly from birds to human. Historically, the emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 caused significant effects on the health, trade, and economies of a number of countries, particularly in Asia. This happened perhaps due to the fact that in the humans, this strain... What risks does the avian ...
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Disscusion
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus The Pandemic Threat of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Background into the Virus According to the CDC (2014), cases of human infections with the new avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were original described by the World Health Organization (WHO) as having occurred in China in March 2013. In its report on the virus, the WHO cited that it believed that the 132 human N7H9 infections that resulted in 44 casualties had been caused from exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments. On February 12,2014, Malaysia reported the first case of the avian influenza A (H7N9) infection to be recorded outside China. The infection was detected... in a traveler who had...
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Bird Flu Research Paper
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza or avian flu is a disease caused by a strain of influenza virus that mainlyaffects birds; both wild and domesticated birds. Infected birds shed the virus in their droppings, saliva and nasal secretions. The many subtypes of influenza A virus and most of their strains are adapted to birds and this makes the influenza A virus the bird flu virus. However, this adaptation is not exclusive. Instead, strains of influenza including influenza A are adapted to different species and that is why bird flu can also be transmitted to humans. Only a few strains of three subtypes of the virus are highly pathogenic in human beings. These are H5N1, H7N3... ?Bird Flu of Bird Flu Bird Flu, also known as...
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Bird flu
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Influenza is a disease of viral etiology that ranges from a mild or even asymptomatic infection to an acute, fatal disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species, especially migratory waterfowl that can infect several species of mammals (What is avian influenza 1). Fowl plague was described in 1878 as a serious disease of chickens in Italy. It is resolve that this fowl plague is actually one of the influenza viruses (Bird Flu/Avian Flu 2). It is said to be originated from Serbia Montenegro and is now known to exist all over the world. The H5N1 type of avian influenza virus is the most likely source of future influenza pandemic... which is infecting humans and...
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Ecology paper
1 pages (250 words)
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...avian-dispersed H5N1 avian influenza disease worldwide. In-depth and integrated network of research platform was essential in full understanding of the spread and impacts of the invasion species. The point of view that I most agreed with was the fact that modern technology such as airplanes contributes to the increasing spread of pathogens and invasive species. Most disease in the world emerges from a single area and spread... Ecosystem Change Ecosystem Change Crowl, Crist, Parmenter, Belovsky, & Lugo (2008) explained in the article, "The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change" that the invasive species on the earth’s surface, pathogens and diseases causing...
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Pandemic Flu
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian flu or bird flu. The virus is carried by wild birds and can be rather dangerous for domestic poultry which can in turn affect humans. H5N1 don't currently infect humans, but the virus is constantly changing, and in some cases it can make people sick. About half of infected humans died: as the virus doesn't always cause humans sickness there is no vaccine which could be able to struggle... with the virus. Symptoms of avian influenza differ from those of other common types of influenza, and they also can change dependant on the cause of infection. There is a danger that avian flu virus mutation can lead to mass spread of pandemic among humans, so...
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Summary
1 pages (250 words)
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...avian flu in ten Asian countries. Klaus Stohr, the flu surveillance officer at WHO announced this and then convened a summit for vaccine manufacturers in the world to deliberate on ways to curb it. According to the previous research, a virus H5N1, which is common in chicken and is very lethal causes the flu and it was even devastating to discover that the flu was also noticeable in ducks which do not show symptoms. The issue of identifying the affected birds... Summary: Worth a Pound of Cure Worth a Pound of Cure The world health organisation (WHO) reported through one of their own flu surveillance officer that there world was at its highest risk of influenza which resulted from the report of the avian...
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To Immunize or Not to Immunize
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian bird virus. (Why Immunize?) Avian influenza, also called Bird flu, is a type of virus that affects birds and other domestic animals. Although it is reported to be highly contagious in birds, it is uncommon for it to be transmitted to humans. But this does not rule out the option that the U.S. population should not be vaccinated against this virus. It has been examined that humans coming in contact with affected birds and animals have been infected rather badly, with the infection being fatal in sixty percent of the cases. This is an alarming situation. People living near farms have been reported to have... To Immunize or Not to Immunize To Immunize or Not to Immunize Vaccination against different ...
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Pandemic
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Avian flu hits, are we prepared or has everyone gone lax and assumed that it will not reach the threat that scientists has warned us of the previous years' There is an argument that it is not anymore a question of whether it will proliferate into a worldwide pandemic or not, the question that to ask... A few years back, massive panic spread throughout the world especially in Asia when the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS scare broke out. Massive panic buying of masks was rampant on the streets of major cities. While other protective measures were enforced as an epidemic was feared to ensue. Today, all the hooplas over and the dread have subsided. But are we correct in our complacency. If the...
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Cost and fear of bird flu
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza haze. Globally the avian influenza is considered an epidemic as it occurs over large areas affecting several communities over a particular period. For example, the influenza H6N1 spread in large areas of China and was quickly curbed in areas like Japan (Francesca, 2013). People panic when bird flu is an epidemic as they do not know where it will spread next or if it will be transmitted to their regions. Similarly, avian influenza leads to economic losses because on money used to treat and contain it, reduction in poultry sales, and losses in productivity. For instance, “Romania experienced a 80% drop in poultry sales in May... The Cost and Fear of Bird Flu al Affiliation Cost and Fear...
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Biology2.1
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses" (140). It is imperative to posit that these viruses occur naturally in birds and do not typically infect human beings. This virus in other words can be transmitted from animals to human, a process referred to as zoonosis (Banks et-al 21). Since birds harbour the virus that causes the flu, then they can be referred to as disease reservoirs (Banks et-al 39). Asia is one of the most populated continent in the world and hence people live in close proximity. Transmission of the virus to humans occurs as a result of human contact with an already infected fowl as well as contaminated surfaces (Centres... Bird Flu According to Brown, "Bird flu is an infection caused by...
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Ongoing Participation with On Line Postings and Discussion Forum
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Bird Flu and E coli infections resulting from contaminated food, can be regarded as consequences of the global food system. This is because when a human being eats food contaminated or with above disease, they get infected with BSE, Avian Bird Flu and Ecoli virus. It becomes a global food system problem because the animal meat can reach million of people and as a result, infect as many people as possible (Lopez, 2005). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative, transmissible brains disease for cattle’s. This disease has an incubation... Ongoing Participation with On Line Postings and Discussion Forum Unit Introduction Problems such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE),...
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To Immunize or Not to Immunize
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian flu that has been exhibited within China stands at 100%. Although it is unclear whether... or not the potential for this particular strain to jump species and be exhibited within the human population is unclear, the extraordinarily high risk that this particular strain of avian flu poses encourages all individuals within society to appreciate the gravity of the situation and engage with a drastic and radical vaccination program as a means of ameliorating just such a risk. It should be reiterated at this particular juncture that even though the potential for this particular strain to jump species is unknown, the inherent risk that it represents is enough to warrant...
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Influenza Pandemic
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian species, pigs and other animals. Influenza Type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on differences in the surface glycoprotein antigens, hem agglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 14 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes. All of these subtypes have been isolated in birds but only 3 different HA and two different NA subtypes have been isolated in humans (See table bellow) Table : Influenza Subtypes Host HA Subtypes NA subtypes Humans H1, H2, H3 N1, N2 Birds H1 - H14 N1-N9 The influenza viruses are only one... THE NEXT INFLUENZA PANDEMIC 2006 INTRODUCTION A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic takes place when a new influenza virus emerges for which...
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Environmental Health
10 pages (2500 words)
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...avian flu and West Nile Virus. Analysis of these three diseases will be conducted on the basis of secondary sources entailing academic and peer-reviewed journals. Adequate efforts will also be rendered with the purpose of evaluating the results concluded by different medical experts and analyzing their importance and appropriateness in a much relevant context. The scope of the study will primarily be to analyze all the issues relating to these diseases and the different interpretations obtainable from the previously conducted researches in this regard... ?Environmental Health Topics INTRODUCTION This paper will attempt to present a precise literature review based on three topics including rabies,...
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Containing and eradicating a pandemic
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian influenza (A1) infection associates with direct contact with infected poultry. Avian Influenza Viruses envelope in a single stranded negative sense belongs to the Orthomyxovindae family. The virus has eight different RNA segments that have high susceptibility of mutation. The AIVs exchange RNA segments in the nucleocapsid and lysed from a cell to transform to a new virus. Type A influenza is highly pathogenic in humans and poultry to infect a wide range of hosts. The subtype of characterization of AIV includes hem agglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein located on the outer... Containing and Eradicating a Pandemic Containing and Eradicating a Pandemic Yee et al. (2009) find that H5N1...
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Structure Of The Human Powered Aircraft And The Industry
15 pages (3750 words)
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...Avian JAVA made by Avian UK are similar to what is desirable for a prototype for the Worthing International Birdman Festival competition (Aeros, 2011, “New Target 21 Tandem”), (Seedwings, 2011, “Sensor 610 F5”) and (Avian, 2011, “Avian JAVA 140”). Figure 5: The Aeros New Target 21 Hang Glider, from (Aeros, 2011, “New Target 21 Tandem”) Figure 6: The Seedwings Sensor 610 F5 Hang Glider, from (Seedwings, 2011, “Sensor 610 F5”) Figure 7: The Avian JAVA 140 Hang Glider made by Avian UK, from (Avian, 2011, “Avian JAVA 140”) After an examination of the abovementioned glider designs, it is important to note that all three of these designs have a wingspan of around the 9.14 m limit... ? A Literature Review for...
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Policy, Power and Politics in Health Care
7 pages (1750 words)
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...Avian flu virus. All of these viruses are expected to be very active this year and we do not want them joining together to mutate a whole new virus. There has been policy related to these viruses before but the needs have not been as drastic as now. We much develop and approve a policy that allows the Public Health Officers to have the power to force people into treatment and quarantine them when... Executive Summary The outbreak of three dangerous viruses all together can be devastating. H1N1 was just news when it first arrived and it was dealt with quickly but the virus has mutated and is back to claim more lives in a much quicker fashion. At the same time is the SARS virus and H5N1 which is the Avian...
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H7N9 disease
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian influenza virus A H7. These viruses are usually found in birds and the source for the H7N9 virus is currently being investigated with many studies pointing to infected birds from poultry houses. The previously known subgroups of this group include the H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7 and these have been linked to human infections in many parts of the world. The current strain of H7N9, which has been confirmed to have infected about 82 people in China, is considered to be more virulent that the previous strains of H7 viruses that have infected humans. The viral sequences of the strain are being studied... ? H7N9- Disease and Epidemiological findings The H7N9 group of viruses is a subgroup of a larger group of...
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SARS( biology essay)
7 pages (1750 words)
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...avian influenza A (H5N1) was isolated from a child in Hong Kong by researchers, which was found to be similar to the influenza virus derived to be of avian origin, but since the bird ‘flu’ is of poultry... SARS” Introduction SARS is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, first appeared in February 2003 and victimized around 8,000 people worldwide and killed10% of them. It has created panic and emerged as one of the most dreaded infectious viral diseases (Kamps and Hoffmann). The virus is defined to be coronavirus causing respiratory illness. The study is therefore important and seeks attention to formulate a deep understanding about SARS to control virus attacks. SARS has drawn the attention of researchers...
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Type A Influenza Virus And Why The Biology Of This Virus Is A Threat To Human
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian species. In birds it is usually an asymptomatic intestinal infection. The cloaca of healthy wild birds is the best source of isolation of influenza viruses. All isolates from nonhuman hosts belong to type A. Influenza virus types B and C appear to be exclusively human viruses and natural infection with them has not been identified in animals or birds. Ordinarily, nonhuman influenza viruses do not cause human infection. But they may play an important role in the emergence of pandemic influenza. It is now known that wild... TYPE A INFLUENZA VIRUS AND WHY THE BIOLOGY OF THIS VIRUS IS A THREAT TO HUMAN Influenza is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory tract which occurs in sporadic,...
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Annotated Bibliography-Sheila-W7
5 pages (1250 words)
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...Avian health information management in the digital age. . Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 28(3), 251-256. doi:10.1647/1082-6742-28.3.251 Association of Avian veterinaries published the article. The author articulates that neoplasm a common disease among the domestic animals is less of cancer to humans and can be well controlled by the use of technology. They provide that, through radiation therapy, diseases such as cancer can be well under control as the study shows a 50% reduction among the patients. The writer suggests more studies as to how technology treatment of cancer can be used among the domestic animals. No much... ANNONATED BIBLIOGRAPHY WK 7 Affiliation ANNONATED BIBLIOGRAPHY WK 7 Avian ...
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The effect of clutch size on predation in birds
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian mobbing (Paul et al 821). Parental behavior and nestling begging is usually seen a signal to increase in predation risk. This hypothesis was questioned since, in some cases, nestling begging could be there but the parents are also there to defend... The effect of clutch size on predation in birds A clutch size in birds is the total number of eggs a bird has laid in a nest at a particular time. It is also important to acknowledge that, like any other animal, birds are often attacked by their enemies, in this case, referred to as predators. A bird predator may attack in many ways, for instance, there are predators that attack both grown up and young birds while others feed on bird eggs (Smith 2461). ...
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Veterinary Care Essay
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian influenza. These diseases can also be fatal when transmitted to humans. Do we have enough competent doctors to give veterinary care to our fowls, to the beasts of burden, and to our pet animals Does everyone have access to adequate veterinary care How do we know if we got the proper veterinarian These questions will be answered through this study. Works Cited "Veterinary." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 10 April 2007 ... Care Animal rights advocates have been campaigning for the proper treatment and care of every being other than man. One of the most popular advocacies is the crusade against the use of fur as wardrobe that well-known fashion models have been supporting. It is...
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Bird Flu
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Avian influenza, also known as bird flu, is a virus that is found primarily in birds, though it can be transferred to human beings. The main hosts of the bird flu are birds, as well as humans if they have caught the disease. The influenza is carried in the intestines of the bird, yet it does not often kill the bird that it is carrying it. Humans can catch the virus by being in direct contact with a bird with the virus or by touching a surface on which the bird has made contact. Although there was a lot of hype in regards to catching the flu by eating poultry, it was proven that bird flu is not a food-borne disease, or a disease that can be caught by eating the infected species... Bird Flu Introduction...
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How Influenza A causes Epidemics and Pandemics
6 pages (1500 words)
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...avian viruses, they are considered to be a probable contamination channel where the virus with the potential of pandemic... HOW INFLUENZA A CAUSES EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS Introduction Influenza pandemics has for a long time been known to affect millions of people worldwide. The pandemic has been estimated to reoccur after every 50 years on average. The epidemics take place more regularly where seasonal influenza occurs yearly in many parts of the globe at times in epidemic fractions (Bernstein & Shelov, 2012). Influenza A virus is the most prevalent root of seasonal influenza. At the time influenza A virus goes through antigenic shift, a pandemic distressing many parts of the world can happen within a...
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The efficiency of Wind Turbines
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian mortality and noise produced by wind turbines: “wind turbines seem to present a significant threat as all... ? The efficiency of Wind Turbines Introduction It goes without saying that in the modern world the energy is highly demanded and recklessly consumed, thus energy supply has grown into a big problem for many countries. It turned into an obstacle on the way to prosperity for many states. Moreover, our environment is changed because of air pollution that leads to global warming. Thus, the problem needs an urgent solution. The solution should respond to all the needs connected with energy supply and environmental protection. Thus, it is essential to consider the types of energy, which are not...
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Discussion Topic
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Chemical Defense Mechanism: Homobatrachotoxinin in feathers of New Guinean passerine birds of the genus Pitohui Hypothesis The feathers of New Guinean passerine birds of the genus Pitohui contain potent neurotoxin (that is toxic to the nerves) called homobatrachotoxinin which is used as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Research Summary I learnt that feathers and other tissues of New Guinean passerine birds belonging to the genus Pitohui contain potent neurotoxin which helps them to combat predation. This neurotoxin called homobatrachotoxinin in birds was identified by Dumbacher et al (1992), after he noted that the flesh of these birds were not...
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SARS
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian influenza A (H5N1) was isolated from a child in Hong Kong by researchers, which was found to be similar to the influenza virus derived to be of avian origin, but since the bird 'flu' is of poultry... "SARS" Introduction SARS is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, first appeared in February 2003 and victimized around 8,000 people worldwide and killed 10% of them. It has created panic and emerged as one of the most dreaded infectious viral diseases (Kamps and Hoffmann). The virus is defined to be coronavirus causing respiratory illness. The study is therefore important and seeks attention to formulate a deep understanding about SARS to control virus attacks. SARS has drawn the attention of researchers ...
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Climate change and H5N1
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian influenza virus, H5NI has been analyzed over the years since its first outbreak. A lot of negligence has been however, towards the effect of climate as a risk factor of the spread of this condition. The climate change over the world has been analyzed towards the effects it has on alleviating the condition. The mode of transmission of this virus is analyzed and predisposing factors of its continued spread. The virus has been found to thrive in cold conditions for a period of even a month. The outbreak is deadly within 48 hours of transmission hence studies towards its wide spread have been analyzed. Introduction This subtype... An analysis of global climate change as a risk factor related to H5N1...
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Microbiology College Essay
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian flu. How might the processes of transduction, coinfection, and antigenic shift help explain this variability (15 pts) Hint: Mechanisms of genetic transfer, viral infection/pathogenesis Coinfection: Although humans do not appear to be directly infected by avian influenza viruses, swine can support the replication of both human... MIC256244 If ATP is such an important energy source for prokaryotic cells, why do you think it is not routinely added to the growth medium for theseorganisms (10 pts) Hint: explanation and purposes of metabolism The Gram positive cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan and on its surface the Teichoic acids protrude out. Teichoic acids give the Gram positive cell wall an o...
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How Influenza A causes Epidemics and Pandemics
6 pages (1500 words)
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...avian viruses, they are considered to be a probable contamination channel where the virus with the potential of pandemic might join... ?HOW INFLUENZA A CAUSES EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS Introduction Influenza pandemics has for a long time been known to affect millions of people worldwide. The pandemic has been estimated to reoccur after every 50 years on average. The epidemics take place more regularly where seasonal influenza occurs yearly in many parts of the globe at times in epidemic fractions (Bernstein & Shelov, 2012). Influenza A virus is the most prevalent root of seasonal influenza. At the time influenza A virus goes through antigenic shift, a pandemic distressing many parts of the world can happen ...
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Role of geography in shaping life and evolution
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian clutch size (i.e., the number of eggs/ nestlings produced by one female at one time... ?The Role of Geography in Shaping Life and Evolution In the present effort to ensure sustainability in all human endeavors, a great deal of attentionhas been devoted to the reservation of the ecological balance. It means that not only are natural resources to be assured of replenishment and restoration when depleted, but that the natural habitat of flora and fauna are to remain undisturbed. Since the industrial revolution when man gained the ability of large-scale mechanization, wanton destruction of nature had been commonplace in the building of cities, denuding of rainforests and polluting of water resources....
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Animal Testing for Immunocompetence
1 pages (250 words)
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...avian immunocompetence. Functional Ecology, 13(4), 567-572.... Animal Testing for Immunocompetence Immunocompetence is a term which refers to the process by which organisms or animals activate their immune systems to fight or defend against attack by foreign bodies. Animals are part of these organisms, and there are various ways of animal testing for Immunocompetence. Clinical animal testing is the most commonly used whereby drugs are administered into the animals, and observation are made. Such testing can include skin test which provides information on the circulation of the responsible white cells in the process of protecting wounds in animals. In my thinking, these tests and others are somewhat...
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Response question
1 pages (250 words)
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...avian flu. With the increasing population and the inappropriate diet and lifestyle the people are falling prey to these fatal diseases. It is an alarming situation that 40% of U.S adults suffer from a chronic disease and 23% of hospitalization is the result of this disease (Department of Health, 2014). Ornish in the video presents only the facts and figures but do not provide an account on how we can change our lifestyle and diet. He discusses the healthy food of Asia but since they are following the U.S then who is left for us to look... Question Dean Ornish with the compilation of facts and figures presents the increasing number of patients of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and avian flu. With the ...
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Retroviridae
12 pages (3000 words)
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...Avian sarcoma and leukosis viral group 2. Mammalian B-type viral group 3. Murine leukemia-related viral group 4. Human T-cell leukemia–bovine leukemia viral 5. D-type viral group 6. Lentiviruses 7. Spumaviruses Based on the similarities in amino acid sequences in the reverse transcriptase proteins of retroviruses (Coombs, Medscape, the retroviruses can be classified into: alpharetroviruses, betaretroviruses, gammaretroviruses, deltaretroviruses, epsilonretroviruses, lentiviruses and spuma-viruses (Table-1). The alpharetroviruses... , betaretroviruses, and gammaretroviruses are considered simple retroviruses; the deltaretroviruses, epsilonretroviruses, lentiviruses, and spuma-viruses are...
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Decisions in Paradise, Part I
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian flu, terrorism and petroleum spill. These would most likely affect the company’s operation processes. As such, it would be crucial for the company to employ effective research team to study and recommend a location which exhibits minimal exposure... ?Decisions in Paradise, Part I Number Starbucks Corporation, world’s greatest coffee company, is an American corporation with its head office in Seattle, Washington. The company’s mission is “to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time” (Griffin, 2012, pg 67). Kava Island seems to be a perfect location for the company as concerns its expansion and growth agenda. Kava is rich in resources, which are...
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Bird Flu Virus
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian flu, is the sickness caused by the flu virus in birds. There are many types of flu viruses, and scientists know that a virus called H5N2 is what causes bird flu. Bird flu spreads quickly in some types of birds like chickens because chickens live very close together, for example in a poultry farm. We see the same with people. If someone in the house gets sick with the flu, I also get sick, and others in the house get sick too. The flu virus spreads from one sick animal or person to another who is healthy. Then, the healthy animal or person becomes sick. When the virus gets inside the body of a living animal... How we can be safe from the Bird Flu Virus What Is Flu The way to understand the Bird ...
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EvolutionEcology
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian sp. found in North America, those having high rate of hybridization namely, Dendroica occidentalis, D. townsendi, D. virens, and D.nigrescens... Summary The article discusses the selection of proper strategy to deal with evolution and genetic variation among closely related species. It was clearly demonstrated that use of right technique like PCR-RFLP makes analysis more rapid and gives good correlation between classical RFLP data and sequence based phylogenetic distance analysis. It also validates use of mitochondrion DNA as genetic marker for parental identification and for identification of hybridization. In the conclusion, the author demonstrates how different methods of phylogenitic analysis...
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Wildlife and Wind Energy
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity. Energy Policy, 37(6), 2241-2248.  The Wildlife Society. (2007). Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat. Retrieved from http://wildlife.org/documents/technical-reviews/docs/Wind07-2.pdf... Wildlife and Wind Energy Wildlife and Wind Energy Human beings have been focusing on tapping clean energy from other nonconventional sources such as the wind and the sun. In line with this, wind energy has been identified as an important source of energy for humanity as it is clean and does not harm the environment when compared to other sources of energy such as energy from...
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Case study: Ready or not
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian flu and this could be attributed to the experience they had during the SARS (sudden acute respiratory syndrome). A survey conducted in Hong Kong by the American Chamber of Commerce revealed that almost every company had someone responsible for implementing avian flu policies. The global bank HSBC was one of the most prepared and it had measures in place for employees to work from home and the division of work. The reader is left to consider what will happen to those companies that have made no preparation for the possible outbreak. 1. What role do you think goals might play in a company’s planning for any potential bird flu? List... ? The Case Application, “Ready or Not...” looks at the level of...
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Week 4 Discussion-Epi
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian hosts and mosquito vectors especially the Culex. Humans and horses are accidental secondary hosts. (Kramer LD, Li J, Shi PY., 2007) Migrating birds are considered... Week 4- Cluster or Outbreak Order No. 308534 No. of pages: 2 6530 The Medical fraternity is facing the problem of dealing with the increase in the number of tuberculosis and West Nile Virus cases and doctors and other health officials are looking towards health care which is community based because it is one of the most cost – effective methods of dealing with these diseases. There are several causes for the prevalence of tuberculosis such as the presence of ‘AIDS, poor medical infrastructure, poor sanitation in certain areas and a...
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Communicable Diseases for District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian influenza A H5N1, Vietnam, 2004. Emerging infectious diseases, 12(12), 1841. Geisbert, T. W., Jahrling, P. B., Hanes, M. A., & Zack, P. M. (1992). Association of Ebola- related Reston virus particles and antigen with tissue lesions of monkeys imported to th e United States. Journal of comparative pathology, 106(2), 137-152. Gubler, D. J. (2002). Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century. Trends in microbiology, 10(2), 100-103. Modis, Y., Ogata, S., Clements, D., & Harrison, S. C. (2004). Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion. Nature, 427(6972), 313-319.... Communicable Diseases An epidemic is a...
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Employment Law for Animal Care
19 pages (4750 words)
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...avian influenza or bird flu and Newcastle disease27 was aimed specifically at those people whose occupation involves working with poultry that may be affected with avian influenza or Newcastle disease, this note covers respiratory hazards, routes of infection, risk and risk factors, and prevention and control measures. Private veterinary surgeons and veterinary inspectors are those whose occupation may put them at risk if an infectious agent is present. Carl, who works with the wild bird collection, was extremely concerned when one swan which recently flew into the zoo unexpectedly died. Suspecting that it could be Avian Flu, he sought his manager... Employment Law for Animal Care & Service Workers Yve...
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The History of the Blue Hen Chicken
4 pages (1000 words) , Download 1
...avian symbol for Delaware. Internet and book resources are used for narrating the stories from different perspectives. Stories are discussed about Blue Hen and its association with fighting spirit and success which encouraged or symbolized the bravery of Captain Caldwell’s men during the Revolutionary War... Running Head: HISTORY OF BLUE HEN CHICKEN AS BIRD Delmarva Folklore The History of Blue Hen Chicken Institute name: Abstract This essay explores the historical background of Blue Hen Chicken that is associated with its adoption as state bird of Delaware. The role of bird during Revolutionary War is discussed that gave the bird an edge over other esthetically more appropriate birds as potential avian s...
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