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Avian influenza
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...Avian influenza Avian influenza Avian influenza Avian influenza was not expected to cause disease in human beings. However in 1997, an influenza epidemic broke out in Asia and North East Africa (WHO, 2011). The avian subtype H5N1 had been incriminated for the several human diseases and deaths and was known to occur from infected poultry birds and farmyard animals as influenza A (CDC, 2009). The WHO had worked with the aims of identification of new cases and made attempts to reduce animal health and public...
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Pandemic avian influenza
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...influenza virus surfaces for which there is little or no immunity for humans, and for which no vaccine is available. Influenza viruses are highly unstable, genetically adaptable, and well prepared to elude host defenses. The disease spreads easily from person-to-person, causing serious illness, and can encompass the whole country and even the world in very short time. Avian (bird) flu is caused by influenza A viruses that occur naturally among birds. There are different subtypes of these viruses because of changes in certain proteins (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA]) on the surface of the influenza... A global disease outbreak is known as a pandemic. A flu pandemic takes place when a new...
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H5N1 Avian virus
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...Avian virus of the of the of the Abstract Avian Influenza or Bird Flu, as it commonly referred to, is an infection which is caused by the H5N1 virus. The natural hosts of this virus are wild birds, in particular water fowls, who carry these viruses in their intestines while themselves remaining asymptomatic. Recently, H5N1 virus is not only leading to an increasing number of epizootics, but has also been implicated in several epidemics in humans. The Avian influenza virus is unique in several aspects. It has a unique structure of the HA structural protein which not only confers host specificity to the virus but is also implicated in enhancing the virulence... of the organism. Moreover, this...
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H5N1 Avian virus
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...Avian virus of the of the of the Avian Influenza or Bird Flu, as it commonly referred to, is an infection which is caused by the H5N1 virus. The natural hosts of this virus are wild birds, in particular water fowls, who carry these viruses in their intestines while themselves remaining asymptomatic. Recently, H5N1 virus is not only leading to an increasing number of epizootics, but has also been implicated in several epidemics in humans. The Avian influenza virus is unique in several aspects. It has a unique structure of the HA structural protein which not only confers host specificity to the virus but is also implicated in enhancing the virulence of the organism... Running Head: H5N1 AVAIN VIRUS H5N1...
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Disscusion
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus The Pandemic Threat of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Background into the Virus According to the CDC (2014), cases of human infections with the new avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were original described by the World Health Organization (WHO) as having occurred in China in March 2013. In its report on the virus, the WHO cited that it believed that the 132 human N7H9 infections that resulted in 44 casualties had been caused from exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments. On February 12,2014, Malaysia reported the first case of the avian influenza A (H7N9) infection to be recorded outside China. The infection was detected... in a traveler who had...
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Bird Flu Research Paper
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza or avian flu is a disease caused by a strain of influenza virus that mainlyaffects birds; both wild and domesticated birds. Infected birds shed the virus in their droppings, saliva and nasal secretions. The many subtypes of influenza A virus and most of their strains are adapted to birds and this makes the influenza A virus the bird flu virus. However, this adaptation is not exclusive. Instead, strains of influenza including influenza A are adapted to different species and that is why bird flu can also be transmitted to humans. Only a few strains of three subtypes of the virus are highly pathogenic in human beings. These are H5N1, H7N3... ?Bird Flu of Bird Flu Bird Flu, also known as...
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Avian Flu Virus
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...avian flu virus (H5N1) present to the human population Introduction: The avian influenza virus is normally an infective strain tothe birds only; however, the world now faces the threat of a human influenza pandemic arising from the recently emerged avian influenza H5N1 virus. Although of avian origin, H5N1 is of particular concern since it has recognised ability to be transmitted directly from birds to human. Historically, the emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 caused significant effects on the health, trade, and economies of a number of countries, particularly in Asia. This happened perhaps due to the fact that in the humans, this strain... What risks does the avian ...
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Type A Influenza Virus And Why The Biology Of This Virus Is A Threat To Human
2 pages (500 words)
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...influenza viruses and natural infection has been identified in several avian species. In birds it is usually an asymptomatic intestinal infection. The cloaca of healthy wild birds is the best source of isolation of influenza viruses. All isolates from nonhuman hosts belong to type A. Influenza virus types B and C appear to be exclusively human viruses and natural infection with them has not been identified in animals or birds. Ordinarily, nonhuman influenza viruses do not cause human infection. But they may play an important role in the emergence of pandemic influenza. It is now known that wild... TYPE A INFLUENZA VIRUS AND WHY THE BIOLOGY OF THIS VIRUS IS A THREAT TO HUMAN Influenza is an acute...
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Influenza Pandemic
4 pages (1000 words)
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...influenza B and C viruses are strictly human pathogens, influenza Type A viruses are readily isolated from avian species, pigs and other animals. Influenza Type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on differences in the surface glycoprotein antigens, hem agglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 14 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes. All of these subtypes have been isolated in birds but only 3 different HA and two different NA subtypes have been isolated in humans (See table bellow) Table : Influenza Subtypes Host HA Subtypes NA subtypes Humans H1, H2, H3 N1, N2 Birds H1 - H14 N1-N9 The influenza viruses are only one... THE NEXT INFLUENZA PANDEMIC 2006 INTRODUCTION A pandemic ...
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Bird flu
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Influenza is a disease of viral etiology that ranges from a mild or even asymptomatic infection to an acute, fatal disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species, especially migratory waterfowl that can infect several species of mammals (What is avian influenza 1). Fowl plague was described in 1878 as a serious disease of chickens in Italy. It is resolve that this fowl plague is actually one of the influenza viruses (Bird Flu/Avian Flu 2). It is said to be originated from Serbia Montenegro and is now known to exist all over the world. The H5N1 type of avian influenza virus is the most likely source of future influenza pandemic... which is infecting humans and...
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Avian flu
10 pages (2500 words)
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...Avian Flu Copyright Although communications is a broad science and an imperfect art, it is impossible to effectively manage a crisis without effective communications. The nature of crises differs and whereas a terrorist related blast or an industrial accident is likely to be a high speed spontaneous event, a public health crisis such as an influenza pandemic can be a relatively slow waiting game that can suddenly escalate. However, emergency or crisis management and communications plans are required to handle all types of incidents and crisis. The avian flu threat that has made itself evident recently as a result of the mutation of the influenza type A virus is a ticking time bomb that needs... ...
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Ecology paper
1 pages (250 words)
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...avian-dispersed H5N1 avian influenza disease worldwide. In-depth and integrated network of research platform was essential in full understanding of the spread and impacts of the invasion species. The point of view that I most agreed with was the fact that modern technology such as airplanes contributes to the increasing spread of pathogens and invasive species. Most disease in the world emerges from a single area and spread... Ecosystem Change Ecosystem Change Crowl, Crist, Parmenter, Belovsky, & Lugo (2008) explained in the article, "The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change" that the invasive species on the earth’s surface, pathogens and diseases causing...
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Biology2.1
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses" (140). It is imperative to posit that these viruses occur naturally in birds and do not typically infect human beings. This virus in other words can be transmitted from animals to human, a process referred to as zoonosis (Banks et-al 21). Since birds harbour the virus that causes the flu, then they can be referred to as disease reservoirs (Banks et-al 39). Asia is one of the most populated continent in the world and hence people live in close proximity. Transmission of the virus to humans occurs as a result of human contact with an already infected fowl as well as contaminated surfaces (Centres... Bird Flu According to Brown, "Bird flu is an infection caused by...
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To Immunize or Not to Immunize
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian bird virus. (Why Immunize?) Avian influenza, also called Bird flu, is a type of virus that affects birds and other domestic animals. Although it is reported to be highly contagious in birds, it is uncommon for it to be transmitted to humans. But this does not rule out the option that the U.S. population should not be vaccinated against this virus. It has been examined that humans coming in contact with affected birds and animals have been infected rather badly, with the infection being fatal in sixty percent of the cases. This is an alarming situation. People living near farms have been reported to have... To Immunize or Not to Immunize To Immunize or Not to Immunize Vaccination against different ...
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Cost and fear of bird flu
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza haze. Globally the avian influenza is considered an epidemic as it occurs over large areas affecting several communities over a particular period. For example, the influenza H6N1 spread in large areas of China and was quickly curbed in areas like Japan (Francesca, 2013). People panic when bird flu is an epidemic as they do not know where it will spread next or if it will be transmitted to their regions. Similarly, avian influenza leads to economic losses because on money used to treat and contain it, reduction in poultry sales, and losses in productivity. For instance, “Romania experienced a 80% drop in poultry sales in May... The Cost and Fear of Bird Flu al Affiliation Cost and Fear...
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Veterinary Care Essay
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian influenza. These diseases can also be fatal when transmitted to humans. Do we have enough competent doctors to give veterinary care to our fowls, to the beasts of burden, and to our pet animals Does everyone have access to adequate veterinary care How do we know if we got the proper veterinarian These questions will be answered through this study. Works Cited "Veterinary." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 10 April 2007 ... Care Animal rights advocates have been campaigning for the proper treatment and care of every being other than man. One of the most popular advocacies is the crusade against the use of fur as wardrobe that well-known fashion models have been supporting. It is...
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H7N9 disease
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian influenza virus A H7. These viruses are usually found in birds and the source for the H7N9 virus is currently being investigated with many studies pointing to infected birds from poultry houses. The previously known subgroups of this group include the H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7 and these have been linked to human infections in many parts of the world. The current strain of H7N9, which has been confirmed to have infected about 82 people in China, is considered to be more virulent that the previous strains of H7 viruses that have infected humans. The viral sequences of the strain are being studied... ? H7N9- Disease and Epidemiological findings The H7N9 group of viruses is a subgroup of a larger group of...
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How Influenza A causes Epidemics and Pandemics
6 pages (1500 words)
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...avian influenza A viruses such as H7 and H5 can result into a contagious illness and death amongst some wild species and particularly domesticated birds (Craig and Scherf, 2003). Both human and avian flu viruses can infect pigs on top of the swine flu viruses. Pigs which have been infected exhibit similar symptoms as humans like fever, runny nose and cough. Given that pigs are vulnerable to swine flu, human and avian flu viruses, they are likely to be contaminated with flu viruses from various species concurrently. This is so because the virus genes are able to mix and make new form of viruses. For instance in case a pig contracted human flu virus on top of the swine flu virus... HOW INFLUENZA A CAUSES...
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Climate change and H5N1
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian influenza virus, H5NI has been analyzed over the years since its first outbreak. A lot of negligence has been however, towards the effect of climate as a risk factor of the spread of this condition. The climate change over the world has been analyzed towards the effects it has on alleviating the condition. The mode of transmission of this virus is analyzed and predisposing factors of its continued spread. The virus has been found to thrive in cold conditions for a period of even a month. The outbreak is deadly within 48 hours of transmission hence studies towards its wide spread have been analyzed. Introduction This subtype... An analysis of global climate change as a risk factor related to H5N1...
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Pandemic
6 pages (1500 words)
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...influenza, many people died without receiving treatment. Scientists had to move fast to figure out ways to cope with the disease. But it was a fact that they were reacting to an already full blown pandemic (www.virus.stanford.edu). The Avian Flu Dread Bird flu, although, normally transpiring in birds poses a pandemic threat when transmitted to human beings. Untamed birds contain these viruses in their digestive systems but do not necessarily get ill due to it. This presents a dilemma when domesticated animals are exposed to these wild... A few years back, massive panic spread throughout the world especially in Asia when the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS scare broke out. Massive panic buying...
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How Influenza A causes Epidemics and Pandemics
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Influenza A viruses particularly in the undomesticated birds (Bordow, Ries and Morris, 2005). These birds are essentially natural carriers of all influenza A subtypes of viruses and thus considered to be reservoir of all the influenza A viruses in other animals. Majority of the influenza viruses result into asymptomatic infectivity in birds even though the variety of symptoms in the birds ranges greatly in correspondence to the virus strain. Infectivity with particular avian... ?HOW INFLUENZA A CAUSES EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS Introduction Influenza pandemics has for a long time been known to affect millions of people worldwide. The pandemic has been estimated to reoccur after every 50 years on average....
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Bird Flu
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Avian influenza, also known as bird flu, is a virus that is found primarily in birds, though it can be transferred to human beings. The main hosts of the bird flu are birds, as well as humans if they have caught the disease. The influenza is carried in the intestines of the bird, yet it does not often kill the bird that it is carrying it. Humans can catch the virus by being in direct contact with a bird with the virus or by touching a surface on which the bird has made contact. Although there was a lot of hype in regards to catching the flu by eating poultry, it was proven that bird flu is not a food-borne disease, or a disease that can be caught by eating the infected species... Bird Flu Introduction...
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Policy, Power and Politics in Health Care
7 pages (1750 words)
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...Avian influenza (health.gov) Together there have been over one million deaths. Many experts are tying the increasing numbers of outbreaks to the increasing amount of heat in the summer with the last four years being the hottest summers on record and the expectation that with global warming there will continue to be an increase. H1N1 is pandemic in Asia, Europe, The Americas, Africa, and the South Pacific and there have been reports of small outbreaks in all other countries (WHO). H5N1 or Bird Flu started by affecting birds and being transmitted between birds. In the past it affected mostly water... Executive Summary The outbreak of three dangerous viruses all together can be devastating. H1N1 was just...
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Ongoing Participation with On Line Postings and Discussion Forum
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Bird Flu is also known as influenza that is caused by viruses got from birds. Different viruses of influenza adapted from birds cause this disease. Additionally, virus adapted... Ongoing Participation with On Line Postings and Discussion Forum Unit Introduction Problems such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Avian Bird Flu and E coli infections resulting from contaminated food, can be regarded as consequences of the global food system. This is because when a human being eats food contaminated or with above disease, they get infected with BSE, Avian Bird Flu and Ecoli virus. It becomes a global food system problem because the animal meat can reach million of people and as a result, infect...
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Containing and eradicating a pandemic
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian influenza (A1) infection associates with direct contact with infected poultry. Avian Influenza Viruses envelope in a single stranded negative sense belongs to the Orthomyxovindae family. The virus has eight different RNA segments that have high susceptibility of mutation. The AIVs exchange RNA segments in the nucleocapsid and lysed from a cell to transform to a new virus. Type A influenza is highly pathogenic in humans and poultry to infect a wide range of hosts. The subtype of characterization of AIV includes hem agglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein located on the outer... Containing and Eradicating a Pandemic Containing and Eradicating a Pandemic Yee et al. (2009) find that H5N1...
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SARS( biology essay)
7 pages (1750 words)
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...influenza virus. On 19th February 2003 an avian influenza A (H5N1) was isolated from a child in Hong Kong by researchers, which was found to be similar to the influenza virus derived to be of avian origin, but since the bird ‘flu’ is of poultry... SARS” Introduction SARS is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, first appeared in February 2003 and victimized around 8,000 people worldwide and killed10% of them. It has created panic and emerged as one of the most dreaded infectious viral diseases (Kamps and Hoffmann). The virus is defined to be coronavirus causing respiratory illness. The study is therefore important and seeks attention to formulate a deep understanding about SARS to control virus attacks....
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Communicable Diseases for District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian influenza A H5N1, Vietnam, 2004. Emerging infectious diseases, 12(12), 1841. Geisbert, T. W., Jahrling, P. B., Hanes, M. A., & Zack, P. M. (1992). Association of Ebola- related Reston virus particles and antigen with tissue lesions of monkeys imported to th e United States. Journal of comparative pathology, 106(2), 137-152. Gubler, D. J. (2002). Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century. Trends in microbiology, 10(2), 100-103. Modis, Y., Ogata, S., Clements, D., & Harrison, S. C. (2004). Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion. Nature, 427(6972), 313-319.... Communicable Diseases An epidemic is a...
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SARS
2 pages (500 words)
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...influenza virus. On 19th February 2003 an avian influenza A (H5N1) was isolated from a child in Hong Kong by researchers, which was found to be similar to the influenza virus derived to be of avian origin, but since the bird 'flu' is of poultry... "SARS" Introduction SARS is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, first appeared in February 2003 and victimized around 8,000 people worldwide and killed 10% of them. It has created panic and emerged as one of the most dreaded infectious viral diseases (Kamps and Hoffmann). The virus is defined to be coronavirus causing respiratory illness. The study is therefore important and seeks attention to formulate a deep understanding about SARS to control virus attacks....
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Pandemic Flu
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza differ from those of other common types of influenza, and they also can change dependant on the cause of infection. There is a danger that avian flu virus mutation can lead to mass spread of pandemic among humans, so intensive studies and research of the virus are being held. HHS, the World Health Organization and other establishments are working hard to prevent avian flu spread around the world. Federal, state and local governments give clear information about avian flu which can help people to held appropriate measures to prevent it. Business activity can also play appropriate role in pandemic infection prevention. People should be ready for appropriate actions... Pandemic Flu Pandemic...
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Development of a Policy Document
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...avian influenza... DEVELOPMENT OF A POLICY DOCUMENT – Influenza Pandemic Introduction This paper attempts to develop a policy document for the steps to be taken to during an influenza pandemic to prevent the spread of the infection to clinical staff caring for infected patients in the wards of a health care environment. Several reasons prompt the decision on the development of such a policy for health care institutions. During influenza pandemic individuals falling ill commonly seek assistance from the health care provider that provides their normal health care needs. This means that health care providers must be prepared to face the extra rush of patients during an influenza pandemic (Ablah, et al,...
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Pandemic Flu Planning
2 pages (500 words)
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...avian influenza pandemic. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 260(2), pp. 220– 229. Virginia Department of Emergency Management - VDEM. (18Th August 2009). Commonwealth of Virginia Pandemic Influenza Plan. Public Intelligence. Retrieved on 11Th August 2013, from http://publicintelligence.net/commonwealth-of-virginia-pandemic-influenza- plan/.... Pandemic Flu Planning Key Words: Pandemic Influenza, National Incident Management System, Commonwealth of Virginia Emergency Operations Plan (COVEOP) Introduction Undeniably, Flu pandemic entails effective control to ensure it does not extent to uncontrollable and worse level, which is phase 6. Therefore, this calls for effective...
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Is the international community adequately prepared to address global health pandemics/ speaking for the motion/ the international community is adequately prepared to address global health pandemics
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza, anthrax letters, Sarin gas, and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis pose the greatest threats in global health issues. Thus, the international community is working tirelessly to predict, prevent, and mitigate the risks within the available resources for the world to be a safe place. According to the National Security Strategy for the United Kingdom 2008, pandemics grow... The International Community Preparedness Regarding Global Health Pandemics Ever since the establishment of the United Nations in 1942 after World War I, a family of nations that support one another has existed. Issues such as health, security, economic development, and education have been tackled by this...
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Environmental Health
10 pages (2500 words)
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...Influenza can have a drastic effect on the overall health of the individuals and can result in high rate of mortality and death rates (139-154). Avian flu had a wide spread in all major parts of Asia since the year 2003. In this regard, Lewis further highlighted that appropriate antiviral therapies should be introduced for the purpose of ensuring sustained cure from the disease and decreasing the death rates associated with this disease. Based on the past records, various preventive measures are needed to be introduced for fighting this deadly virus in the future (Lewis 139-154). According to the observation of Fleming, infection in humans by an...
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Orthomyxovirus (influenza)
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian water reservoirs, and emerge without being predicted and spread easily in people. The second attribute is its comparatively quick and unpredictable antigenic transformation that is associated with its evolution the moment they infect the human population. This short paper details some aspects of the influenza virus. Discuss the virus morphology Influence virus is highly pleomorphic; this implies that the envelope of the virus can appear in spherical or filamentous shapes. However, as Jin and Leser (98) explain, the virus’s has a spherical morphology with 50 to 120 nm particles in diameter. The virus also has a filamentous virions measuring 20 nm in diameter, while the measure 200... ? Influenza...
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Epidemiology Case Study Paper
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...influenza A virus, the latter being a common and much less harmful cause of flu among humans. Hosts are individuals that have contact to animal hosts of the H1N1 virus, such as pigs. Similarly, in case of avian flu, another strain of influenza A hosts were birds... ., Xiao, X., Domeneche, J., Lubroth, L., Martin, V. and Slingenbergh, J. (2006). Anatidae migration in Western Palearctic and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(11), 1650 – 1656. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no11/06-0223.htm?s_cid=eid06_0223_e Tellier, R. (2006). Aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerging...
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Disease resulting by global warming
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza, cholera, Ebola, infestation and infection of intestinal and external parasites, yellow fever, sleeping... ? Diseases Resulting By Global Warming al Affiliation) Diseases Resulting By Global Warming Introduction Global warmingis attributed to the depletion of the ozone layer which is majorly a major result of human activities. Global warming is attributed to increased emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide. There are many negative effects that are associated with the occurrence of global warming. The first negative effect is the change of climatic conditions. With global warming, the world will experience extreme weather changes more often that experienced. That is the dry...
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Technological advances of globalization
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian influenza and mad cow, particularly in nations where rules... Introduction: Globalization is a of action and integration along with the organizations, people, and governments of various nations. This process is obsessed by international trade and investment and assisted by information technology. This process has effects on different areas such as culture, environment, economic growth and prosperity, political systems, and societies. Globalization process has begun thousands of years ago when people or corporations started buying and selling each other in distant lands. In fact, several features of the present signal of globalization are comparable to those existed before the start of the 1st world ...
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Strategic Management Real insurance
12 pages (3000 words)
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...Avian influenza arises among birds as a new flu type virus infection. Wild birds all over the world can carry the diseases in their intestines... Running Head: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic Management of Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1. Summary of the issue and its potential impacts on REAL Insurance 3 1.1 Background of Issue 3 1.2 Industry 3 1.3 Needs of Business 3 2. Outline of the analysis with reasons of the selections 5 Figure 1: 5 2.1 Modernised form of Insurance 5 3. Presentation of the analytical work performed and a commentary on the outcomes 7 3.1 Environmental Analysis 7 3.1.1 Regulations 7 3.1.2 Market Expectations 7 3.2 New Knowledge Management System 8 3.3. Strategy Thinking ...
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Business continuity management
2 pages (500 words)
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...Avian Influenza (the Bird Flu), terrorism, tsunamis etc. The governments support computer software and hardware development for BCM and the public safety markets. The governments of the USA, UK and Australia are going to expend current programs and introduce international BCM programs and polices in order to increase safety measures and social... Business Continuity Management In modern world, continuity management and unexpected incidents prevention has become an urgent need from the standpoint of national safety. This point is explained by the fact that business is an integral part of national and global economy which requires special attention and government actions to be made in order to protect...
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Balance Between Good for Society vs. Individual Freedom
2 pages (750 words)
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...avian influenza are the main threats to safety and existence of mankind. The threat can be explained by the fact that the alterations of mutation, reassortment, and recombination, viruses could have evolved their own genetic structure. According to statistical results... Balance Between good for society vs. individual freedom Safety is one of the main problems and concerns investigated and controlled by the society and the government. The main health-care problems that the government is obliged to tackle is proliferation of diseases (namely pandemics and viruses). In contrast with traditional viruses such as smallpox and poliomyelitis, new viruses of fearful scope have now appeared. HIV/AIDS and avian i...
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Influenza Vaccine During Pregnancy
6 pages (1500 words)
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...avian species. Its transmission is through droplet nuclei as well as body discharges. The virus invades the respiratory epithelium after the incubation duration of 1-7 days. A damage to epithelium us followed by immune response. Characters displayed by the patients encompass fever, cough, sore throat, diarrhoea, vomiting followed by hospitalization. Vaccination against the devastating disease influenza is highly essential to prevent the development of complications especially pneumonia in children. During pregnancy the immunity provided to the developing fetus is passive, it can prevent the fetus from influenza. Reports of teratogenic as well as carcinogenic implications of the condition... ? "Influenza...
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Interactive marketing
14 pages (3500 words)
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...Avian influenza arises among birds... Running Head: INTERACTIVE MARKETING Interactive Marketing of Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1. Summary of the issue and its potential impacts on 3 ABC Insurance 3 1.1 Background of Issue 3 1.2 Industry 3 1.3 Needs of Business 3 2. Outline of the analysis with reasons of the selections 5 Figure 1: 5 2.1 Modernised form of Insurance 5 3. Presentation of the analytical work performed and a commentary on the outcomes 7 3.1 Environmental Analysis 7 3.1.1 Regulations 7 3.1.2 Market Expectations 7 3.2 New Knowledge Management System 8 Figure 2 9 3.3. Marketing Strategy Thinking and Planning 9 3.3.1 Marketing Strategy Plan 10 3.3.2 Market Expectations 11 3.3.3 N...
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Influenza Vaccine during Pregnancy
5 pages (1250 words)
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...avian species. Its transmission is through droplet nuclei as well as body discharges. The virus invades the respiratory epithelium after the incubation duration of 1-7 days. A damage to epithelium us followed by immune response. Characters displayed by the patients encompass fever, cough, sore throat, diarrhoea, vomiting followed by hospitalization. Vaccination against the devastating disease influenza is highly essential to prevent the development of complications especially pneumonia in children. During pregnancy the immunity provided to the developing fetus is passive, it can prevent the fetus from influenza. Reports of teratogenic as well as carcinogenic... Influenza Vaccine during Pregnancy"...
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Microbiology College Essay
4 pages (1000 words)
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...influenza viruses that differ genetically from one another. For example, we have heard of the swine flu, Hong Kong flu, Bangkok flu, and avian flu. How might the processes of transduction, coinfection, and antigenic shift help explain this variability (15 pts) Hint: Mechanisms of genetic transfer, viral infection/pathogenesis Coinfection: Although humans do not appear to be directly infected by avian influenza viruses, swine can support the replication of both human... MIC256244 If ATP is such an important energy source for prokaryotic cells, why do you think it is not routinely added to the growth medium for theseorganisms (10 pts) Hint: explanation and purposes of metabolism The Gram positive cell ...
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The Bird Flu in the United Kingdom
5 pages (1250 words)
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...avian influenza, has caused alarm and continues to present a looming threat of a flu pandemic. The deadly H5N1 strain has maintained a 100% mortality rate among infected birds, and has resulted in governments destroying millions of birds in an attempt to thwart further infection. The main concern lies in the fact that the bird flu can infect people, and has infected... The Bird Flu in the United Kingdom The object of this paper is to provide an assessment of how the government of the United Kingdom is currently combating the spread of the bird flu virus, and how it is preparing for a possible pandemic that can result in numerous human fatalities. All over the world, the bird flu, also known as the avian ...
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Orthomyxovirus or Influenza
3 pages (750 words)
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...avian water reservoirs, and emerge without being predicted and spread easily in people. The second attribute is its comparatively quick and unpredictable antigenic transformation that is associated with its evolution the moment they infect the human population. This short paper details some aspects of the influenza virus. Discuss the virus morphology Influence virus is highly pleomorphic; this implies that the envelope of the virus can appear in spherical or filamentous shapes. However, as Jin and Leser (98) explain, the virus’s has a spherical morphology with 50 to 120 nm particles in diameter. The virus also has a filamentous virions measuring 20 nm in diameter, while the measure... Influenza...
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10 Medical Article summaries
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...avian influenza. This virus is highly pathogenic in nature. Pathogens are basically disease causing agents. Bird flu refers to strains of influenza that usually target domestic and wild birds .Due to its contagious nature, this virus is easily transmitted from one bird to another. Various researches have shown that this virus is transmitted to a human if he or she somehow comes in contact with the infected poultry, consumption of raw meat of birds who had avian flu or by coming in contact with surfaces which were contaminated by excretion and secretion of an infected bird as it is a zoonotic disease. Everything You Need to Know About the Next Pandemic, Mark... ?Staphylococcus Aureus: They are facultative ...
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Bird Flu Virus
4 pages (1000 words)
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...avian influenza. FineTuning.com, 12 October 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2006, from: http://www.finetuning.com/articles/12-the-avian-influenza.html... How we can be safe from the Bird Flu Virus What Is Flu The way to understand the Bird Flu virus is to know what a virus is, how a virus can make you sick with the flu, what is bird flu virus and how it is different from human flu virus, and why the bird flu virus is making people all over the world very nervous. There are many types of germs that cause diseases. One is the bacterium and the other is the virus. Both are small and live inside animals, including people, but when they are inside the animal, they cause disease and make them sick. When an anim...
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Community Project
15 pages (3750 words)
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...avian influenza, and SARS. In the latest times, of the most common infectious diseases, Measles has been on top of the list in terms of prevalence, incidence rates, and severity. According to Griffin and Oldstone (2008), Measles is a very deadly disease and spreads over a large... Nursing al Affiliation) TASK TWO Communicable diseases The recent figures produced by The World Health Organization (WHO)demonstrate that, there has been a raging increase of transmissible diseases across the world. This has mainly been attributed to two key factors, which comprise; galloping population increase and the changes in inoculation practices around the world boosting the spread of such diseases like measles, avian...
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Global food issue
10 pages (2500 words)
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...Avian Influenza”; “Foodborne Illness”; “Questions and Answers”). Kuchenmüller et al. supported the World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative of understanding the morbidity and mortality effects of international foodborne diseases and they noted that the latter have become an increasing global burden because of the complexity of understanding their concepts (i.e. concepts of food safety and risk assessment of biological hazards), causes, and pathways and finding appropriate immediate and long-term solutions. The paper defines food safety and risk management of food safety, identifies problems... June 22, The Dangers of Food in the Global Village: The Possibility of a Real-Life Contagion and How to...
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