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Temperature Effect
9 pages (2250 words)
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...Amylase Hydrolysis of both Fungial Aspergillus_Oryzae and Bacterial Bacillus_Lichenifornis at Different Time Periods Professor Student Name: February 23, 2015 Group Member: (2) Abstract A laboratory experiment was conducted. The enzyme experiment focused on amylase hydrolysis from fungial Aspergillus_Oryzae and amylase hydrolysis from Bacterial Bacillus_Lichenifornis using starch hydrolysis. The procedures centered on both fungal amylase and bacterial amylase on four different temperatures levels and different time periods. Amylase hydrolysis includes soluble maltose (sugar) procedures. The findings... Effect of Temperature on...
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Bacterial Transformation
4 pages (1000 words)
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...amylase and extra gene which breaks down beta lactamase or starches and eventually leads to a breakdown of antibiotic ampicillin. To this end, the growth of bacteria is evident even in places outside their natural setting. In the field of medicine, the ability naturally competent bacteria in acquiring plasmids that possess resistant antibiotic genes is deemed as critical. This has immensely influenced the development of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. Evidently, genes that are encoded by plasmids are capable of spreading through bacterial populationst... Bacterial Transformation Historical Perspective The process of transformation was initially described by Fred...
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Enzymes in Industry
12 pages (3000 words)
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...Bacterial amylase is used by Boiden and Effront to perform textile desizing. Pre- W.W.I - Otto Rohm uses pancreatic extracts to bate leather. He also later used enzymes in detergents. 1926 - James Sumner crystallizes the enzyme jack bean urease, demonstrating conclusively that enzymes are proteins. Mid- 1930s - John Northrop, Moses Kunitz confirm the proteinaceous nature of enzymes by showing a direct correlation between the amount of protein present and the activity of the enzymes trypsin, pepsin and chymotrypsin. 1963 - The first amino acid sequence of an enzyme, bovine pancreatic... The workings of life, from digestion to replication, synthesis of nucleic acids to the destruction of bacterial cell ...
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Enzyme Amylase Lab Report
5 pages (1250 words)
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...amylase is affected by parameters such as temperature, pH and concentration. It measured how changing levels of the parameters led to changes in enzyme activity. It proved that high enzyme concentrations and optimum pH levels and temperatures increased enzyme activity. Introduction: Amylase is an enzyme that helps in breaking down starch to form sugars such as maltose and glucose. In human beings it is found in the saliva. An enzyme is a protein-based catalyst that raises the reaction rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy needed for that reaction... . It is not used up in the process. It is hypothesized that the enzyme activity changes when various parameters such as...
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Bacterial Meningitis
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Bacterial Meningitis Definition Inflammation of the subarachnoid space that develops rapidly and is caused by certain bacteria is known as bacterial meningitis (WHO, 2010). The subarachnoid space is the space between the arachnoidmater and piamater which cover the brain and the spinal cord. Invasion of this space by bacteria triggers entry of immune cells resulting in inflammation. This inflammation can remain localized to the meninges or spread to the blood vessels... Outline A. Definition 2 B. Demographic characteristics 2 C. Causative organisms 2 D. Risk factors 3 E. Mode of spread 3 F. Clinical presentation 3 G. Diagnosis 4 H. Management 5 I. Prognosis 6 J. Prevention 6 Bact...
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Bacterial transmission
11 pages (2750 words)
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...Bacterial transmission has been aided by contact with living organisms as well as by non-living. This is with respect to the ability of infectious organisms to flourish on inert surfaces (Ellis, 2006). According to Shrutz (2003) the microbes also thrive in the air below the 500 feet altitude including spores of Bacillus and Clostridium, algae, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium among others. Respiratory bacteria are mainly dispersed in the air through droplets of saliva and mucous produced when one coughs, sneezes, talks or laughs (Shrutz, 2003). According to Rutala et al. (2006), the microbes, which are freely present in the the air, can in most cases be evident on computer keyboards... 0. INTRODUCTION...
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Bacterial Meningitis
5 pages (1250 words)
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...Bacterial Meningitis of the of the Infection of the membranes that enclose the spinal cord and the brain istermed meningitis. It can arise from bacterial, fungal or viral infections. Meningitis caused by bacteria is known as bacterial meningitis. It is a serious ailment that can result in the death of the patient. In general, it transpires in people who undergo a head injury or among individuals with a weakened immune system. This disease predominates among children and youth. Certain adults are also susceptible to develop this infection. Those who abuse alcohol, indulge in prolonged and deep kissing, suffer from chronic ear and nose infection, and who have contracted pneumococcal pneumonia... ...
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Bacterial biofilms and disease
2 pages (500 words)
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...Bacterial Biofilms and Disease A bacterial biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed within a self-produced polymeric matrix and sticking to an unmoving or living surface (Costerton, Stewart, & Greenberg, 1999). Bacterial biofilms are present mostly in wet surfaces and are visible to the naked eye. In 1970s, it was found that sessile (attached or immobile) bacteria make up a major portion of the bacterial biofilms in many environments. Bacterial biofilms consist of microcolonies on a surface and develop into organized communities with functional heterogeneity (Figure...
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Bacterial Cure for Cancer
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Bacterial Cure for Cancer 16-09-11 Bacterial Cure for Cancer Introduction: Today, in developing countries cancer is one of the leading causes of death. The incidence of cancer as a cause of death is rapidly increasing. Cancer cells originate due to mutation of a host cell in response to chemical carcinogens, viruses or radiation. Regardless, of their origin most cancerous cells have certain surface antigens which distinguish them from the surrounding normal host cells. These antigens serve as an ideal target for elimination by the defense mechanisms of the body. In accordance with the theory of Immune Surveillance, cytotoxic T cells and Natural killer...
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Testing anti-bacterial agents
1 pages (250 words)
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...bacterial agents will show... in this paragraph. The effects of four types of antibacterial (Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Enoxacin and Norfloxacin) in McCoy cell are different. The results may refer to the different abilities for each antibacterial to penetrate the eukaryotic cell. Moreover, the infected cell may not increase the time of incubation after the removal of anti-bacterial agents creating a little different between MIC and MLC for each antibacterial agent. On the other hand, Ofloxacin antibacterial agent may act contrary to some enzymes that are important for the survival of non-replicating intracellular chlamydia. As such, Ofloxacin has a responsibility of...
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Bacterial cells Quantification
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Bacterial cell quantification is useful in many areas of biology, in that it allows us to know the number of cells, or the viable cell count. This information can be used in antibiotic sensitivity testing, or infection severity, for example. Bacterial cell quantification can be done in several ways, but this experiment will be using a spectrophotometer to measure the relationship between the bacterial cell concentration and the absorbance of light. Results using known concentrations are often used to find the cell count of an unknown solution, and this is what will be achieved here. Additionally, the information... ?The Effect of Lysozyme Solution on Micrococcus lysodeikticus Cell Counts Introduction...
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Bacterial Meningitis - Pediatric
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Bacterial Meningitis First Last of Bacterial Meningitis Introduction Bacterial meningitis is one of the most fatal infections afflicting children worldwide. Although vaccinations for certain causative agents have been widely distributed, bacterial meningitis cases are not completely eradicated, and neurologic sequelae and death even result if adequate medical assistance is not given. In the diagnosis of such condition among pediatric patients, as well as in scientific endeavors to treat it, nurses have essential roles to play as health care providers and members of the health care team. The nursing process of assessment,...
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Bacterial Culture Techniques
2 pages (500 words)
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...bacterial mixture. The only way to ensure accurate results is the one keeps a close check on procedures and contamination issues, the pre heating of the incubator. The adding of the mixture the streaking and the agar plate being clean and with out any previous substance still remaining on it. The opening and closing of the bottle and the fire of the pipettes all need to be carefully monitored and conducted. Some bacteria take more time to let their cells culture and keeping in mind the exact bacteria being used one should accordingly calculate... BACTERIA CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUE DEFINITION AND EXPLANATION BACTERIA Bacteria are organisms that are single celled and hence cannot be seen with the naked eye,...
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Examination of Bacterial Infections
2 pages (500 words)
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...bacterial infections will provide facts concerning the conditions necessary to spread an infection, the nature of a potential host and the modes of pathogen transmission. According to Pinto et al. (2014), the three elements necessary to spread an infection include; a source of infecting micro-organisms, mode of micro-organism transmission and a susceptible host. The source of infecting microorganisms generates the pathogens that infect the susceptible host through certain means of transmission that might involve fluid transmission, contamination or even direct contact. Therefore, an infection can be prevented through eliminating at least one... Infections Lecturer Affiliation Due A keen examination of...
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Bacterial transformation and gene expression
8 pages (2000 words)
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...Bacterial transformation and gene expression Bacterial transformation is the process of introducing the foreign DNA into the bacteria. E.coli is a Gram-negative bacterium, which does not have the natural ability to accept the foreign DNA. Hence calcium chloride solution was used to increase the competency of the cell. The plasmid pUC18 and lux operon were used for the transformation. The LB agar medium was prepared with the antibiotic inclining and the plasmid was introduced into the E.coli using the competency and heat shock method. Calcium chloride solution neutralizes the cell membrane and creates a pore in the cell membrane for the uptake of the...
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Environmental effects on bacterial growth
3 pages (750 words)
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...bacterial growth Introduction There are a limited number of living organisms in the world that can survive under almost all possible environmental conditions. Living organisms are limited by the ecological circumstances by which their habitats experience. The limitations are set by the interactions that exist between the organisms physiology and the environment within where they live. Each particular species has a set of conditions where they can survive, reproduce and grow. Temperature, oxygen, pressure and nutrition are some of the environmental elements that constrain the growth of the species with bacterial included in the list. The central question for the experiment... Environmental effects on...
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Lab 4 Infectious Bacterial Identification from DNA
1 pages (250 words)
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...Bacterial Identification from DNA Sequencing Infectious Bacterial Identification from DNA Sequencing Other ways of identifying bacteria such as Grahm staining and Ziehl-Neelsen staining which use staining of the bacteria using a special dye prove to be inefficient in comparison to genetic testing method that use DNA sequencing. Genetic testing has an advantage over the other methods due to its ability to identify the species that a bacterium belongs to rather than identifying only its genus. DNA sequencing involve identifying the DNA sequence of a bacterium then multiplying the DNA strands using the polymerase reaction that generate a lot of DNA strands for testing to note variations... Infectious...
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Molecular and Genomic Analysis of Bacterial Pathogenicity
13 pages (3250 words)
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...Bacterial Pathogeni Introduction "Analysis," in the Oxford dictionary, is defined as "resolution into simple elements." In genetic analysis we must be clear about what we resolve and into what simpler elements. Mainly as a consequence of the development of microbial genetics, genetic analysis has increased enormously its resolving power in recent years, so much so that it now goes beyond that of physical or chemical techniques applied to biological organization (Pontecorvo, 1958). The essential process on which genetic analysis is based is recombination. Consider the analogy with microscopy, which is based instead on diffraction. The resolving power attained... Molecular and Genomic Analysis of...
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The importance of SOC broth for bacterial transformation
1 pages (250 words)
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...bacterial transformation: SOC is acronym for Super Optimal broth with Catabolite repression. It is a rich media and provides good ground for transformation due to the possession of elements by it. It has great importance towards the grown of bacteria and its subsequent transformation. The forefront reason for the importance of SOC broth is that of its ability to provide transformation efficiency. This transformation efficiency pertains to containing of certain Magnesium, Calcium and Potassium ions. SOC enables the transformation of bacteria and overall yield in this regard. Various media serve as element of growth towards bacteria. The elementary one... . Apart from this, SOC contains...
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Principles of Bacterial Genetic of book Biology of Microbiology
8 pages (2000 words)
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...Bacterial Genetics is being introduced with a spectacular illustrations. The forms and photomicrographs provide a comprehensible and attention-grabbing offering the mental picture of the microbial world to its readers. Moreover the tables and figures have been redesigned to make them easier and coherent for the reader to understand. Chapter is color-coded, to provide a meaning and perception of highlighting important facts. Principles of Bacterial Genetics encompasses, the basic structure of the DNA... ?"Book Review" The discipline of science dealing with microorganisms is d as microbiology. In the present scenario microbiology has emerged as one of the most applicable, pertinent and exhilarating...
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Overuse of antibiotics and the developement of resistant bacterial strains
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...Bacterial Strains Introduction Mankind has seen exponential progress in the past decades. The modernization provided by numerous technological advancements has really improved and opened new frontiers in communication, entertainment, warfare and medicine. Nowadays, it is possible to have face to face communication with friends and loved ones even without the actual physical presence through the latest mobile phones. Likewise, chatting on the internet has evolved from mere text messages to voice and then suddenly chat mates become almost face to face with the web cam. It seems that boundaries and distances have been shattered through these advancements... ? Overuse of Antibiotics and the Development of...
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Bacterial Meningitis
2 pages (500 words)
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...Meningococcal disease Screening Program for Creig College Increasing number of college students, especially freshman residing in dormitories are infected by the meningococcal disease. In order to create better awareness about the disease among students, the college is conducting a screening program that will provide educational information (brochure) about meningitis to students and queries related to the symptoms and nature of the disease will be clarified. Follow-up after the screening program Students who attend the screening program will be referred to a local hospital for further screening and testing procedures. For further information about the disease contact the Creig College Health...
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Computer-aided image processing for bacterial cell enumeration
4 pages (1000 words)
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...BACTERIAL CELL ENUMERATION ID Bacteria pathogen studies regularly needs thedetails of the bacteria colony. Bacteria colonies details appear as a crucial apparatus for most of the extensively applied biomedical analysis. Bacterial dependency details remains low the whole time. This wastes a lot of labor and time. There appears a time when there exists so many colonies on a Petri dish yet the census process is commonly handled by educated and trained. An argument area of focus in microbiology is mainly the machine use in counting. There appear several inhibitors in the way of counting colonies to ensure effectiveness of the method. The inhibitors include; methods... ? COMPUTER-AIDED IMAGE PROCESSING FOR...
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Computer-aided image processing for bacterial cell enumeration
4 pages (1000 words)
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...BACTERIAL CELL ENUMERATION ID Bacteria pathogen studies regularly needs the details of the bacteria colony. Bacteria colonies details appear as a crucial apparatus for most of the extensively applied biomedical analysis. Bacterial dependency details remains low the whole time. This wastes a lot of labor and time. There appears a time when there exists so many colonies on a Petri dish yet the census process is commonly handled by educated and trained. An argument area of focus in microbiology is mainly the machine use in counting. There appear several inhibitors in the way of counting colonies to ensure effectiveness of the method. The inhibitors include; methods... COMPUTER-AIDED IMAGE PROCESSING FOR...
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Differentiation of Microorganisms
5 pages (1000 words)
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...bacterial to find out if certain enzymes are developed or produced. The secondary objective was to use the tests to help in identifying bacteria. The experiment on fermentation, determined if a microorganism can make sugar ferment. Additionally, the primary objective of motility experiment was to determine if a bacteria is motile or not, the experiment used a motility agar and direct microscopic observation. The secondary objective of a motility test was to differentiate the motility from the Brownian motion. Finally, the experiment on differentiation of enteric bacteria had three objectives that listed the bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract and differentiate... Differentiation of...
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Assignment1
4 pages (1000 words)
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...amylase components do not dissolve in water while Amylopectin dissolves in water. Structurally, Amylose can appear in a pair of distinct helical forms or in a distorted amorphous confirmation. Amylopectin , however, has a non-random branching determined by enzymes... Questions a. Insulin is a protein hormone that is made p of protein chains linked in a disulfide bond and contains 51 amino acids. It is vital in the regulation of amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates and carbohydrates absorption. It hence increases the protein synthesis as well as DNA replication process. DNA, on the other hand is responsible for storing of genetic information during the insulin coding process. This can be distinguished...
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Lab 4
3 pages (750 words)
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...bacterial build-up along the teeth, as well as washing away the adhered food particles. Response to Question 6 Given that babies of about two months old lack amylase, which is an enzyme that aids in starch digestion they are incapacitated to consume cereals. The diet of the baby is somewhat iron-poor since breast milk is by design iron-poor thus grains do interfere with iron absorption (Robert, 1998). Moreover, cereals do not provide high quality proteins and fats for the baby. This implies that giving... ? Lab 4: Enzyme Experiment Effect of enzyme concentration Data Table Effect of enzyme concentration on the production of gas Response to Question 1 Enzyme-Catalase produced by the yeast...
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Analyze the Use of Serial Dilution in Determining Bacterial Toxin Concentration
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Bacterial Toxin Concentration" Introduction Bacteria are tiny microscopic organisms that are not visible through naked eyes. They are visible through the microscope. Direct count of these microorganisms is time consuming and tedious, moreover it requires a lot of expertise. Various methods are developed over the years to count the microbes; encompassing colony count, serial dilution followed by plating the sample, pour plate method etc (Davis, 2011; Ford, 2010). Bacterial are living organisms and they are present in nature as a large population. In order to estimate their number, plating is done but plating cannot give the countable number... of bacteria synthesize toxins that act as the...
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How useful are invertebrate infection models for studying bacterial pathogenisis and therapy
14 pages (3500 words)
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...bacterial pathogenesis and therapy Infectious diseases are responsible for over a quarter of human deaths annually according to the World Health Organization report. Also causing economic losses and its consequent suffering are pathogens causing crop and livestock damage. To identify new microbial targets and effective combat mechanisms it is important to understand the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of pathogenesis. Pathogenesis is a complex pathogen-host interaction in which the pathogen deploys multiple factors leading to infection and host adopts diverse resistant strategies. The infection cycle involves the disease causing... How useful are invertebrate infection models for studying...
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Article Summary: News on Detection of Bacterial Infection: Polymers Fluoresce in the Presence of Bacteria
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...bacterial infection in a wound, the appropriate antibiotic and the required dosage. This method would significantly reduce the risks of the overuse of antibiotics. This study is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl). The research team is also expanding its field of study to the technique of fluorescence Non Radiative Energy Transfer, which could have important contributions in pathogen detection and bacterial contamination. The team is interested in potential research partners. ... Detection of Bacteria: Fluorescent Polymers. A team of researchers at the of Sheffield, headed by Dr. Steve Rimmer, has developed...
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Pharmaceutical Industry, New Drug Discovery Research Unit, Anti-bacterial Drug Research
6 pages (1500 words)
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...bacterial Drug Research Introduction of antibacterial drug research: Anti infective drug research is a specialized branch of drug discovery unit in a Pharmaceutical industry. For acquiring the role of a leader a basic qualification of Microbiology or Biotechnology (undergraduate or post graduate) is essential. The scientist has to undergo a few years of extensive training on job as a research scientist in antibacterial drug research. A Ph.D. scientist in the relevant field may be absorbed directly as a leader. Before we look at the role of a leader we must understand the need of the antibacterial drug research... . Antibacterial drugs have been the most effective of all medicines. Their...
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Describe five key features of the immune response against a bacterial infection
3 pages (750 words)
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...Bacterial Infection Overview Defense against infections through immune system of human body comes at the third level of body defense mechanism. While the first level offers defense through skin and other outlets of the body, the pathogenic bacteria faces resistance in entering the body through skin, teeth, mouth and other organs that have direct contact with the outside environment. The protection to human body is provided by sweat, saliva and tears from eyes, among other agents. Although these defenses may be passive, yet they are quite affective in combating infection, while being called as ‘non-specific’ defenses. When the body is not able to ward... -of the infections at level one, the...
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Describe the 16SrDNA analysis and how it is interpreted with respected bacterial phylogentic
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...bacterial phylogenic Institution of Affiliation: Date: The 16SrDNA analysis It was shown in laboratories of Woese amongst others that phylogenetic relationship pertaining and, indeed, the entire forms of life could be determined via comparing a stable portion of the genetic code. The portion of the DNA today used on most occasions for taxonomic reasons for bacteria is referred to as the 16SrRNA gene. This gene is also designated as 16SrDNA, where the two terms have been used interchangeably but now the ASM policy currently stipulates that 16SrRNA gene takes priority (Jill, 2004). The 16SrRNA gene has the ability... , generating both reverse and forward (complementary) sequences (Janda &...
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Practical 5
2 pages (500 words)
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...amylase will also... Practical 5 Practical Report Two Question According to Weaving (2007, p.27), the graph for intravenous injection of antibiotic will the highest from the start, until all the drug content has been thoroughly utilized because, the drug will be in direct contact with blood, with no restricting membranes such as the stomach linings. Intramuscular injection will have a high graph but slightly lower than the intravenous injection. Oral injection will have the lowest level and, hence the lowest graph due to the many lining which restrict direct entry of drug into the blood stream. Lining in the stomach and the dilution of drug content by the saliva and enzymes found in the saliva such as...
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LIVE CELL IMAGING OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS BREACHING THE BARRIER OF POLARIZED EPITHELIAL CELLS
29 pages (7250 words)
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...BACTERIAL PATHOGENS BREACHING THE BARRIER OF POLARIZED EPITHELIAL CELLS Thesis presented by Maryam Alshamrani To College Dublin MSc Imaging and Microscopy Principal Investigators: Date of submission: 16/08/2012 Table of Content List of Abbreviations: 3 List of Abbreviations 3 Acknowledgement 4 1.0 Introduction 6 2 Materials and Methods 14 2.1 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 14 2.2 Investigation of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells in infection assay with GFP-tagged Cj 15 2.3 Staining with anti-cortactin and phalloidin 15 2.4 Staining with anti-ZO-1 and HOECHST 16 2.5 Extracting GFP and YFP plasmids from C.jejuni for transformations 16 2.6 Transformation of Cj 11168 wt... ? LIVE CELL IMAGING OF...
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In females with recurrent bacterial vaginosis, do prophylactic antibiotics, compared to no treatment, reduce the recurrence rate
10 pages (2500 words)
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...bacterial vaginosis, do prophylactic antibiotics,compared to no treatment, reduce the recurrence rate? Background information The recurrent or persistent vaginal infections are associated with episodic or continuous symptoms of burning, irritation or itching (Bope, Kellerman, & Rakel, 2012). Not all women persistently produce discharge from the vagina. In fact, research supports that almost five percent of women are likely to suffer from recurrent or persistent infections. Bacterial vaginosis depicts a change in the vaginal ecosystem. It is not a real infection but represents an inequality in the bacterial setting (Center... PICOT Question and Search Strategies PICOT Question In females with recurrent...
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Microbiology: Unknown Organism
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...bacterial culture. Materials and Methods 1. Carbohydrate Fermentation: Two culture tubes containing sucrose broth and lactose broth were inoculated with a pure culture of the unknown microorganism and incubated at 37oC. Each broth contained phenol red, a pH indicator that changes from red in basic environment to yellow in acidic conditions. The color change was an essential indicator of acid formation from the fermentation of the sugars during the growth of bacteria. An inverted Durham tube filled with the broth was also included... of the unknown organism caused the PR to turn from red to yellow in the sucrose medium with the production of gas in the Durham tube. However, there was no...
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Provide an overview of the role nutrition can play in the prevention / management of bacterial and viral infections
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Bacterial and Viral Infections Table of Contents Introduction 3 Discussion 3 Differences between Bacterial and Viral Infections 3 Difference in Structure amid Bacteria and Virus 4 Replication Difference amid Bacteria and Virus 4 Conventional Treatment 5 Dietary and Lifestyle Factors in Prevention / Management of Bacterial and Viral Infections 6 Conclusion 7 References 9 Bibliography 13 Introduction Health, safety and wellbeing are between the primary and the most importance aspects of human life. People in the recent society are deemed quite concerned towards the increasing number of diseases that at often instances... Provide an Overview of the Role Nutrition Can Play In the Prevention Management of...
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The Anatomy of Human Digestive System
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...amylase that digests starch and mucin that lubricates food for easy swallowing. It also has buffer system that balances the pH and antibacterial chemicals that kill bacteria from the food. Deglutination Deglutination constists of sequence of three stages: voluntary stage ,pharyngeal stage and esophageal stage. The voluntary stage push back the food back to the mouth before swallowing. The pharyngeal stage raises the soft palate and the esophageal stage contracts the pharyngeal muscles, open the esophagus and start peristalsis. The Esophagus... ?The Anatomy of Human Digestive System Introduction Digestion is the process wherein food is mechanically and chemically breaks down into smaller pieces small...
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Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this termGive a bacterial, parasitic
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Bacterial Examples Gardam et al (2003, p. 148) state that during inhalation, the TB bacteria get trapped in the alveoli where they get into contact with the white blood cells (WBCs). In a healthy person with the very active body defense mechanisms, these white blood cells will work against the bacteria and try to destroy it. On the other hand, when a person’s immune system has been impaired, it means that the RBCs are a very weak and cannot completely destroy all the inhaled bacteria... ? Infectious Disease and Processes Infectious Disease and Processes Opportunistic Infections Generally, the word opportunistic refers to a situation where something/someone takes an immediate unethical advantage of a...
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Relationship Between Food Safety and Critical Violations on Restaurant Inspections: An Empirical Investigation of Bacterial Pathogen Content
2 pages (500 words)
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...Bacterial PathogenContent” Name Institution Course Critique of the “Relationship between Food Safety and Critical Violations on Restaurant Inspections: An Empirical Investigation of Bacterial Pathogen Content” Introduction Yeager and her colleagues (2013) carried out a study in the American Food system to determine the level of food safety in two groups of restaurants. According to the American regulations, inspections of restaurants should take place at least thrice a year. However, restaurants that do not meet the expected standard may be subject to more investigation... Critique of the “Relationship between Food Safety and Critical Violations on Restaurant Inspections: An Empirical Investigation of...
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BIOL 260-Microbiology (Bacterial Unknown Lab report)
2 pages (500 words)
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...Discussion The main motive to perform this study was to determine the presence of unknown microorganisms present in the provided sample. This study encompasses classification of bacteria based on their chemical reactions temperature, pH levels and osmoregulation. It is very imperative to classify the bacteria and to identify these microorganisms as they have enough potential to cause various diseases. This is essential to carry out the correct diagnosis and treatment of the individual. Identification of the bacteria provides line of treatment. As the preliminary examination about the unknown sample, Gram Staining was performed to categorize bacteria into Gram positive or Gram negative... The main...
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Discuss the microbial production of non Beta lactam antibiotics
14 pages (3500 words)
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...bacterial pathogens was investigated by Musthafa et al. (2010). Soil actinomycetes isolated and analyzed for their efficacy in antibiotic production against common clinical pathogens viz. Staphylococcus aureus... Microbial Production of Non-Beta Lactam Antibiotics Actinomycin Actinomycetes are phylogenetically related from the evidence of 16S ribosomal cataloguing and DNA:rDNA pairing studies and they are gram-positive bacteria, with high guanine (g) plus cytosine (c) ratio in their DNA above 55% by mole (Goodfellow and Williams, 1983). “Actinomycetes” came from the Greek “atkis” (a ray) and “mykes” (fungus), and that has features of both Bacteria and Fungi (Das et al., 2008). They are soil organisms...
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Nutrition From Infancy to Adolescence
6 pages (1500 words)
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...amylase (a starch digesting enzyme) is not produced by body. The enzyme starts functioning in third or fourth month when starch is introduced. Adequate amount of fluids are essential for urinary excretion. Because of the absence of teeth in infants, only liquid or semi-liquid foods should be given until teeth start to develop. Infant body has limited storage for iron, therefore, iron, in addition to vitamin and minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorous supplementation is vital. Initially... , these supplements can be given as drops of oral preparations and later in a form of mixture with milk or fruit juices, but amounts should be kept moderate(Joshi 170). Breast milk is ideal for infant...
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Q and answers
2 pages (500 words)
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...bacterial) signal sequence? (1 mark) Feature 1: A sequence... Phase Test (attempt March 2008). Q1. Fill in the missing words mark) Protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum is generally ___co______.-translational, whereas targeting to mitochondria is generally _ post__- translational. Q2. Proteins targeted initially to the endoplasmic reticulum may finally be sorted to: (1 mark) A) the endoplasmic reticulum membrane B) the endoplasmic reticulum lumen C) lysosomes D) the plasma membrane E) all of the above ANSWER = __E_____ Q3. Fill in the missing words:...
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Case study of nutritional biochemistry (with clinical implications)
10 pages (2500 words)
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...amylase breaks down some of the carbohydrates into its smaller components. The bolus then passes the esophagus, which undergo peristaltic movement to allow the bolus to reach the stomach. The organ contains pepsinogen-secreting chief cells and acid-secreting parietal cells, making it the most suitable area for protein digestion. After 40 minutes to a few hours, the stomach will release chyme into the small intestine, where the ultimate degradation of food occurs. The pancreas produces carbohydrate-, protein-, and lipid-catabolizing enzymes... ?Introduction One of the main identifying characteristics of heterotrophs is the ability make use of other living things, which are made up of basically the same...
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Nutrition From Infancy to Adolescence
6 pages (1500 words)
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...amylase (a starch digesting enzyme) is not produced by body. The enzyme starts functioning in third or fourth month when starch is introduced. Adequate amount of fluids are essential for urinary excretion. Because of the absence of teeth in infants, only liquid or semi-liquid foods should be given until teeth start to develop. Infant body has limited storage for iron, therefore, iron, in addition to vitamin and minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorous supplementation is vital. Initially... , these supplements can be given as drops of oral preparations and later in a form of mixture with milk or fruit juices, but amounts should be kept moderate(Joshi 170). Breast milk is ideal for infant...
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Biochemistry
8 pages (2000 words)
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...amylase-resistant, coarsely clumped material in the liver cells that is consistent with abnormal and insoluble glycogen. Explain the most likely metabolic basis for the child's symptoms and identify the metabolic disorder she presents. The above mentioned symptoms correlate with the disorder 'Glycogen storage disease type IV', also known... A female patient, 11 weeks old, presents the following symptoms; an enlarged liver and spleen and failure to thrive. You order a liver biopsy that indicates she exhibits early stages of liver cirrhosis and histological studies (see image below) show a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)- positive (indicates presence of glycogen), a...
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Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this term [10%] Give a bacterial, parasitic and a viral example of opportunistic infections giving details of what factors shifted the host-pathogen balance to favo
4 pages (1000 words)
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...bacterial, parasitic and viral opportunistic infections, and the factors that shift the host-pathogen... OPPORTUNISTIC MICROBIAL INFECTIONS Introduction Microorganisms present in the healthy body are collectively termed as normal flora. Their positive effects include their priming the immune system, and in blocking or inhibiting invading pathogens from colonizing the body. The negative effects of normal microbial flora are that they are “major causes of opportunistic infections that develop under permissive conditions”1 of lowered host defences and immunocompromisation. Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to examine “opportunistic” microbial infections; and to investigate examples for bac...
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Dental Erosion in Human Tooth Enamel causing by coffee and tea
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...bacterial acid production in tooth plaque, which can cause deep localized lesions if it remains too near the tooth for any length of time. It is believed by the authors that acid in food and drink contributes considerably to dental Erosion, but although both coffee and black tea make acidic drinks they are less acidic than many alternative choices such as fizzy drinks. . Literature review. According to MedlinePlus 20112 a single cup of tea:- contains... ( 2002)6 showed that ‘All coffee solutions have high anti-adhesive properties due to both naturally occurring and roasting-induced molecules," Gazzini is quoted further as saying’ All of the tested samples inhibited S. mutans adsorption and...
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