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Potassium
1 pages (250 words)
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...Potassium Introduction Potassium is a crucial element in the body that is responsible for both cellular and electrical function. The blood serum contains between 3.5 and 5 mg of potassium in every 100 ml. The body potassium is derived from dietary sources, with the element well absorbed from the intestines. Excess potassium in the body is eliminated through urine while others are still eliminated via sweating. Adrenal hormone is responsible for the stimulation actions for elimination of potassium from the body; however, coffee, sugar, alcohol and diuretics can contribute to low levels of...
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Sodium-Potassium-coupled Chloride
34 pages (8500 words)
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...Potassium-coupled Chloride) Cotransporters in a newly-developed murine neuronal cell line CAD (caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease) to try... www.academia-research.com Sumanta Sanyal d: 28/03/07 Laboratory Report: RT-PCR Analysis on Murine CAD Cells to Establish Molecular Identity of the KCC2 Cotransporter Contents Page Introduction.2 Methodology.3-7 RNA Isolation Technique RNA Isolation Protocol Estimation of RNA Yield Primer Design The PCR Technique Immunohistochemical Technique Results.9 Discussion..10 Conclusion.11 References Appendix Abstract This paper introduces a research project that shall investigate the expression patterns of the NKCC (Sodium-P...
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What is Sodium Potassium Pump
1 pages (250 words)
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...Potassium Pump Sodium-potassium pump, also known as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, Na+ /K+ -ATPaseor Na+/K+ pump is a type of enzyme known as antiporter-like enzyme situated in the plasma membrane of the cells of every animal (Mary 23). Located strategically on the plasma membrane of a cell and just as the name of the enzyme suggests sodium potassium pump thrusts potassium into the cells of the animals while pumping out sodium out of the cells. While the enzymes perform the antiporter like function, they are not actual antiporter since the molecules it pumps in both directions flow against their gradient of concentration. In doing this, the enzyme performs fundamental functions... Sodium...
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Standardisation Of 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate Solution Using Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Ammonium Iron (Ii) Sulphate)
3 pages (750 words)
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...POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE SOLUTION USING FERROUS AMMONIUM SULPHATE (AMMONIUM IRON (II) SULPHATE) By Instructor’s name September 7, 2016 Title Standardisation of 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate Solution using Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Ammonium Iron (II) Sulphate) Introduction The technique for determining the concentration of an acid or a base is known as titration. This is the process which involves carefully adding one reactant to another while at the same time measuring how much is needed for the reaction to be complete. In this experiment, a base (Iron Ammonium Sulphate – FeSO4.(NH4)2SO4.6H2O Mr=392g/mole) will be added to 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate... STANDARDISATION OF 0.02MOLDM-3...
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Standardisation of 0.02moldm-3 Potassium Permanganate Solution using Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate (Ammonium Iron (II) Sulphate)
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...Potassium Permanganate with Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate Introduction Volumetric analysis is a standard procedure in chemistry wherein concentration of one chemical in solution form can be determined if it reacts with another chemical (with known concentration), and also in solution form. Oxidation/Reduction reactions in chemistry are also known as Redox reactions. A Redox reaction is one in which there is transfer of electrons from one species to the other (Web, Undated). In this experiment, an attempt has been made to determine the concentration of an unknown solution of Potassium permanganate (Chemical Formula: KMnO4) through volumetric titration with Iron Ammonium Sulphate... per liter...
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Effects of steroids on calcium activated potassium channels and secretion of LH and FSH in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
11 pages (2750 words)
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...potassium channels and secretion of LH and FSH in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) Instructor’s Name Course Date Effects of steroids on calcium activated potassium channels and secretion of LH and FSH in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) Luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH & FSH) are vital in regulating vital growth and development processes in vertebrates. These two hormones specifically control gametogenesis and by extension development into puberty. LH and FSH are secreted by specialized hormone producing gonadotropic cells in the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is comprised of two main compartments, that is, the neural (neurohypophysis) and non... Effects of steroids on calcium activated...
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Potasium
2 pages (500 words)
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...POTASSIUM Potassium Potassium element plays a pivotal role in the body and plant systems. According to Roza, (2007), Humphrey Davy discovered the element 1807. He managed to isolate this element through electrolysis method making it the pioneer the use of this approach in isolation of other elements (Shaposhnik, 2007). To date, the element is acquired through electrolysis of hydroxide or chloride because it is not found freely in nature (Roza, 2007). It was until the eighteenth century that Potassium and sodium were distinguished. Potassium is an essential dietary mineral. Regulation of...
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Potasium regulation of the Heart and cardiovascular system
5 pages (1250 words)
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...Potassium regulation of the heart and cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system of the human body consists of the heart, blood vessels e.g. arteries, veins, arterioles, capillaries, and blood which flows in these vessels. The human heart is located in the middle of the thoracic cavity and is oriented in a diagonal plane such that its apex leans slightly towards the left side. It is covered in a fibrous sac known as the pericardium, except in areas where the great vessels attach to it. Within the pericardium is a small quantity of fluid which lubricates the heart surface and decreases friction between the pericardium and heart during contraction and relaxation. The...
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Potasium Regulation of the Heart and Cardiovascular System
5 pages (1250 words)
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...Potassium regulation of the heart and cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system of the human body consists of the heart, blood vessels e.g. arteries, veins, arterioles, capillaries, and blood which flows in these vessels. The human heart is located in the middle of the thoracic cavity and is oriented in a diagonal plane such that its apex leans slightly towards the left side. It is covered in a fibrous sac known as the pericardium, except in areas where the great vessels attach to it. Within the pericardium is a small quantity of fluid which lubricates the heart surface and decreases friction between the pericardium and heart during contraction and relaxation. The...
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Lab report
6 pages (1500 words)
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...potassium are cations that are found in the extracellular fluids such as blood plasma and intracellular fluids respectively and play an important role particularly in the brain, heart, muscle, heart and nervous system. They are involved in several body processes. For instance, sodium maintains normal body fluid levels in the body and blood pressure while potassium plays a vital function to the heart and in contraction of the skeletal and smooth muscle for the muscular and digestive function. In healthy individuals, the body is able to maintain fairly constant levels of sodium and potassium by balancing intestinal absorption with urinary excretion. However, severe malfunction... Introduction Sodium and...
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Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hpyernatremia, and how they effect our body system
5 pages (1250 words)
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...potassium, calcium chloride and bicarbonate. Each of these electrolytes exhibit different chemical properties. Some of these electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium attain positive charge whereas the latter two electrolytes have a negative charge on them. This is crucial in identifying their properties and calculating anion gaps discussed later. Each of these electrolytes has their unique functions and any changes in their normal concentration in the body fluids can have a significant effect on the functions of different organs of the body. There is some difference... Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hypernatremia, and how they affect ourbody system: Introduction: Body ...
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Additives
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...potassium bromate, and Acesulfame potassium” (Minich, 2009). Olestra contents include sucrose and six to eight fatty acids. It is used in potato chips, cheese puffs, crackers, and pop corns. There are severe... ?Running Head: Additives Additives [Institute’s Additives Centuries ago until today, mothers whine over the same old issue, “mychild bothers me every day in eating” (Longgood, 1960). Simple solution that my mother found due to ignorance is to use “food additives.” They are added in order to improve its taste, flavor, and extend its shelf life but their hazardous effects are ignored. Certain food additives, which I come across daily in my home, include “olestra, monosodium glutamate, aspartame,...
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Assignment
1 pages (250 words)
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...potassium. The drugs administered to patients with respiratory complications have differing side effects. Patients must be consulted about existing medical conditions to identify the type of medication to be administered. Significance of High and Low Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium Levels Normal sodium levels range between 135-145 milliequivalents per liter of blood (mEq/L... Respiratory Care Medications al Affiliation) Respiratory Care Medications According to Persing, , the respiratory care medications are a culmination of efficient drug usage and drug calculations. The types of drugs used fall under the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID). Under these drugs, there are narcotic analgesics and...
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Principles of Critical Care Nursing - Leadership and teamwork when planning care and making decisions
10 pages (2500 words)
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...Potassium replacement in clinical practices strategies to restore the low serum potassium concentration (Aronson, 2009). However, proper reactive care must be taken before the replacement therapy is executed (Aronson, 2009). The baseline potassium values must be determined as well as the existence of underlying medical conditions such as CHF. In addition, the presence of other medications altering the levels of Potassium in the serum such as non-potassium-sparing diuretics as well as those resulting in arrhythmias in case... Principle of Critical Care Principle of Critical Care Patient’s Management Plan within the Intensive Care Field of Practice According to the consensus guidelines for the use of...
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Unknown compound
10 pages (2500 words)
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...potassium ions. The chemical reaction between the unknown solution and barium chloride followed by acidification using dilute nitric acid gave a white precipitate indicating presence of sulfate ions, which resulted from formation of barium sulfate that is an insoluble salt. The pH and conductometry tests gave numerical values of 7.90 and 3.031×10^4 µS/cm, respectively. The unknown solution had a pH similar to that of the known while the conductivity value of the unknown was different from that of the known by a small margin (-0.003×10^4 µS/cm). Synthesis of potassium sulfate from a reaction between potassium hydroxide and dilute sulfuric acid... Identification of Cations and Anions in a Solution...
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Lab report
2 pages (500 words)
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...potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate, KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) is a double salt. The Al3+ ions in alum act as flocculating agent during water treatment and purification and also... Running head: RECYCLING ALUMINUM TO ALUM Recycling Of Used Aluminum Cans to Alum: A Study Affiliation Introduction Aluminum and its alloys find several applications today, right from soda cans to aircraft material. This is because aluminum is versatile and has many desirable properties: light weight, nontoxic, pleasing appearance, ability to take high polish, high electric and thermal conductivities, corrosion resistance, malleability, ductility, non-magnetic, and non-sparking. (Greenwood & Earnshaw, 1997) Aluminum combines with ...
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Lab report: discussion, conclusion, reference
2 pages (500 words)
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...potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate, KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) is a double salt. The Al3+ ions in potash alum act as flocculating agent during water treatment... Running head: RECYCLING ALUMINUM TO POTASH ALUM Recycling Of Used Aluminum Cans to Potash Alum: A Study Affiliation Introduction Aluminum and its alloys find several applications today, right from soda cans to aircraft material. This is because aluminum is versatile and has many desirable properties: light weight, nontoxic, pleasing appearance, ability to take high polish, high electric and thermal conductivities, corrosion resistance, malleability, ductility, non-magnetic, and non-sparking. (Greenwood & Earnshaw, 1997) Aluminum combines with...
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Poitassium iodide as a radioprotector
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Potassium Iodide as a radioprotector after nuclear accidents The only potential causes of large radioiodine emissions into the air are a disastrous accident within an operating nuclear reactor, and a detonation of nuclear weapons. In case of a nuclear event, detrimental and poisonous radioactive materials could be emitted into the environment. One of the major health risks comes from radioactive forms of iodine element, which could be taken up by the thyroid gland, consequently causing cancers as well as other incapacitating illnesses (Robbins & Schneider, 2003). Potassium Iodide (KI) is a vital component of any emergency preparedness kit and is typically aimed at survival after... ?Administration of...
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Saponification Lab Report
2 pages (500 words)
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...potassium soap from saponification of fat. Saponification refers to the process of soap synthesis from fats. Saponification takes place when triglycerides which are present in fats react with bases such as potassium or sodium hydroxide. The end result is usually fatty acid salt or soap or Glycerol. Lipids that have fatty acid esters undergo hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by strong acid or base to yield products of saponification process. Saponification was popular in the early 20th century that saw the development of technology to increase the quality of soaps. Although soaps and detergents are surfactants they are different... Saponification Lab Report Background The Purpose of experiment is to produce...
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Lab practical - report & questions sheet
1 pages (250 words)
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...potassium hydrogen phthalate (Mr = 204.2 g mol-1) to a phenolphthalein endpoint, requiring 32.70 mL. Determine the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Solution: A balanced chemical reaction between potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium hydroxide is depicted as follows: KHC8H4O4 + NaOH NaKC8H4O4 + H2O Mole ratio of potassium hydrogen phthalate: sodium hydroxide = 1:1 Moles of potassium hydrogen phthalate that reacted with NaOH = mass of KHC8H4O4/ Mr = 0.8592 g/204.2 g mol-1 = 4.2 × 10^-3 mol Using number of moles... PJ1100 LAB RE-ASSESSMENT Acid-Base Practical A sodium hydroxide solution is standardised by titrating 0.8592 g of a primary standard...
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Blood, Lymphatic System, and Immunity
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...potassium. Other potential infection likely is Leukopaenia. The high red blood cell volume is due to loss of fluid in the cells that is controlled by fluid therapy. Medical care can involve: Counseling, Antiretroviral therapy, and the correct medical administration and control for other deceitful contagions. Reduced potassium in her blood system is as a result of Hypokalemia, which infect the cardiac function through lowering the blood pressure. Treat diarrhea... Blood, Lymphatic System, and Immunity Affiliation The disease tested is HIV. Once HIV blood test is done, CD4 content is less than 200µl. The symptom of diarrhea disease is a sign of a contagion that induces volume reduction and low...
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Brouchere - High Blood Pressure
1 pages (250 words)
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...potassium levels. If these are low he will advise you to eat potassium rich foods such as bananas. Fruit skins are rich in potassium so don’t peel your apples and pears. Moderate your alcohol intake. Try eating low fat yoghurt instead of cream. Try and get in some moderate exercise several times a week. Only if this doesn’t work will you need medication. So its over to you!... High blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? How do you treat it? Who does it affect? How the average person can take steps at home to improve their blood pressure. Your doctor says you’ve got hypertension – that’s his way of saying high blood pressure, which means a pressure of above 140/90. If uncontrolled blood pressure probl...
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Chemistry of the Drug Lithium
4 pages (1000 words)
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...potassium (K+). Any cell, like brain cells, have extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid is rich with sodium, and the intracellular fluid is rich with potassium. Whenever there is a signal transfer through the cell membrane, there is exchange... Chemistry of the Drug Lithium Lithium is a naturally occurring, readily commercially available alkali metal with atomic number of 3, designated bysymbol Li, and atomic weight of 6.941. This is a silvery white or gray metal that is solid at 298 K. Looking at the periodic table, lithium is assigned group number 1 and period number 2. Therefore, it is group 1 (IA) element containing just a single valence electron (1S22S1). Li...
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Hypertension
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...potassium in right proportions. This strategy can be applied in the form of DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). It primarily focuses on decreasing the consumption of salt. The DASH eating plan tends to also regulate the amount of saturated fat... HYPERTENSION SUBMITTED T0- SUBMITTED BY- Hypertension Healthy living has a large variety benefits that have been espoused by all. It is vital to leada good life. There are a lot of advantages of dieting and eating the proper food. This hypertension assignment has helped me in comprehending the affects of a good lifestyle coupled with the intake of nutrients in the right mix. It has given me a lot of data regarding the ingesting of sodium and...
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Nutrition 1
2 pages (500 words)
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...Potassium. % DV of vitamin B 2 is 500% and it is enough for human being. As Vitamin B2 can be founded in milk, rice, eggs thus people can easily meet the requirements of it. During athletic performance and physical performance, supplements of vitamin B2 are helpful to provide extra energy to the muscle tissues... Other Nutrition Chapter 8 Vitamins and minerals involved in energy metabolism There are several vitamins and minerals involved in energy metabolism. The vitamins which are involved in energy metabolism are as follows- Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Vitamin B12, Biotin, Pyridoxine (B6), Nicotinic acid (B3), Folic Acid, Pantothenic acid and Vitamin C which are important cofactors that help to...
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Blood Pressure Woes and Which Electrolyte
2 pages (500 words)
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...potassium electrolyte in the body. She had a count of 3.0 milliEquivalents... Blood Pressure Woes and Which Electrolyte? Chronic Renal/Kidney Failure Chronic Kidney failure is a disorder of the kidney which results from gradual malfunction of the kidney. Initially, there may be no signs of this disorder until the end-phase the disease is attained. This phase is where the kidney is unable to excrete unwanted materials from the body hence making waste to be withheld in the body. The major cause of this disorder is high blood pressure and diabetes. George has been having high blood pressure for five years, has been letting out a lot of urine and tremendous reduction of body mass. Acute kidney failure occur...
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Exercise 9: Renal System Physiology Worksheet Assignment
3 pages (750 words)
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...potassium concentration constricts (decreases radius... Exercise 9: Renal System Physiology Worksheet Assignment Due: Week 8 instructions: Follow the step-by-step instructions for this exercise found in your text and record your answers in the spaces below. Submit this completed document by the assignment due date found in the Syllabus. Please make sure that your answers are typed in RED. Glomerular Filtration Activity 1: Effect of Arteriole Diameter on Glomerular Filtration 1. Compare this data with your baseline data. How did increasing the afferent arteriole radius affect glomerular filtration rate? Increasing the afferent arteriole radius resulted in an increase in the Glomerular Filtration Rate ...
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Nutrition and Metabolism (Soldium)
8 pages (2000 words)
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...Potassium is one of the most important intracellular cation... INTRODUCTION: Sodium is the major extra cellular cation that plays a role in fluid distribution among the parts of the body. The ingested sodium is first filtered in the renal glomerulus and approximately 70% is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Further reabsorption of sodium occurs in the loop of Henle and ...A high plasma sodium concentration is referred to as hypernatremia. This can occur due to simple dehydration, excess sodium intake, steroid therapy and diabetic insipidus. Hyponatremia, can occur due to diuretic medication, kidney disease, excessive sweating, congestive heart failure or gastrointestinal...
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Nutrition and Metabolism
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Potassium is one of the most important intracellular cation... INTRODUCTION: Sodium is the major extra cellular cation that plays a role in fluid distribution among the parts of the body. The ingested sodium is first filtered in the renal glomerulus and approximately 70% is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Further reabsorption of sodium occurs in the loop of Henle and ...the plasma sodium concentration), is about 140 mmol/L. Sodium maintains the osmotic pressure of the extra cellular fluid and helps in retaining water in the extra cellular compartment. Along with other cations it is also majorly involved in neuromuscular irritability, acid base balance, maintenance of b...
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Bananas - description (varieties,classification,uses, etc.) , cause/effect,compare/contrast, synthesis, argumentation
6 pages (1500 words)
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...potassium, fiber, and vitamin B6. VI. Contrasts and comparisons VII. Conclusion Thesis Statement Various varieties of bananas exist in different parts of the world offering nutritional value at an affordable price. Bananas are fruits available throughout... Munshi Akbar Sharon Mueller English 1301 9 November Bananas Outline Thesis ment Taxonomy A. Musa genus B. Musaceae family C. M. acuminata Colla species D. M. X paradisiaca L. hybrid. III. Varieties A. Major Group 1. Sucrier 2. Gros Michel B. Subgroup 1. Cavendish A. Dwarf Cavendish B. Giant Cavendish C. Bungulan IV. Food Uses A. Raw. B. Boiled or baked. C. Preserved. V. Nutritional Value A. Low in fat, cholesterol, and sodium B. Good source of potassi...
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Bananas - description
6 pages (1500 words)
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...potassium, fiber, and vitamin B6. VI. Contrasts and comparisons VII. Conclusion Thesis Statement Various varieties of bananas exist in different parts of the world offering nutritional value at an affordable price. Bananas are fruits available throughout... ?Munshi Akbar Sharon Mueller English 1301 9 November Bananas Outline Thesis ment Taxonomy A. Musa genus B. Musaceae family C. M. acuminata Colla species D. M. X paradisiaca L. hybrid. III. Varieties A. Major Group 1. Sucrier 2. Gros Michel B. Subgroup 1. Cavendish A. Dwarf Cavendish B. Giant Cavendish C. Bungulan IV. Food Uses A. Raw. B. Boiled or baked. C. Preserved. V. Nutritional Value A. Low in fat, cholesterol, and sodium B. Good source of...
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Environment
3 pages (750 words)
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...Potassium. Hypothesis: different soil samples obtained from different sites usually portray different chemical and physical properties. Strategies of the Experiment Two different soil samples were to be obtained from different sites including soil sample collected from flat land covered by grass (Sample ID: NAltarki-2) and soil sample collect away from any environmental barrier (Sample ID: NAltarki-1). The collected data are to be subjected to the same soil testing with the sample parameters including texture, color, and levels of pH... no. Environmental Studies, Lab Report: Soil Experiment Introduction Soil is usually a vital component in agriculture and determining the nature of the soil is...
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How Nerves Work
3 pages (750 words)
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...Potassium. Ions are just atoms which have extra electrons or missing electrons., so this makes them charged. The ions on both sides of the cell membrane are not equal. There are some things called sodium-potassium exchange pumps in the cell. These pumps send out sodium ions from inside the cell and let in potassium ions from outside to inside the cell. There are lots of positively charged potassium ions inside the cell but there are more sodium ions outside, and some potassium ions too. So the charge inside the cell is not equal to the charge outside. This causes a voltage difference... which scientists call Resting membrane Potential. The nerve cell membranes have some special paths for...
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Science & Nutrition: Dehydration
4 pages (1000 words)
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...potassium, and chloride-function in the body. The nutrients that offer an exact valuable role in human physiological procedures and health comprise water, potassium, sodium, and chloride. Water is the main single component of the human body and is indispensable for cellular homeostasis and existence. Water offers the solvent... SCIENCE & NUTRITION: DEHYDRATION Why is water essential to health maintenance? Water is a clear, colorless, tasteless and nearly odorless liquid which is essential for all living things. Human body is mostly (50-70 percent) water. Water is the body’s important nutrient. Water is the nutrient the body needs in the greatest amount. Water is involved in almost every bodily function....
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Dehydration
4 pages (1000 words)
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...potassium, and chloride. Sodium and potassium are positively charged ions. Sodium is located outside the cell, while potassium is located inside the cell which is an area that is 30 times more concentrated. Due to the imbalance between sodium and potassium the cell membrane attracts sodium to it. After this reaction occurs the positive charge cells increase causing the electrical charge inside cell membrane to be reversed which triggers an increase in sodium permeability on the adjacent patch of the membrane. The third electrolyte is chloride which is often found in salt. When a person tastes something salty they need water to dissolve... ?Water is an essential element that is needed for human life. It...
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Physiological Psychology
2 pages (500 words)
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...potassium ions. The phases of action potential are: rising phase- In the resting state the inside of the neuronal cell is polarized (-70mv) as compared to its outside charge. Therefore, it is polarized... 1. Compare and contrast the anatomy and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. Be sure to provide specific details. Nervous system encompasses voluntary and involuntary functions. The involuntary actions are controlled by autonomic nervous system (ANS); these functions comprise actions carried out by intestines, heart, glands, which are not under our direct control or those which cannot be controlled by our will. Therefore it functions at subconscious levels and thus it is ...
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Chemistry of Alkenes
2 pages (500 words)
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...potassium permanganate tests were done and the observations were noted. The distillate was also subjected to FTIR and GC analysis to confirm its identity. 1. Report a percent yield and show your calculations. Given: Density of 3-chloro-3-methylpentane (g/mL) 0.885 Volume of 3-chloro-3-methylpentane used (mL) 1.4 Weight of empty flask (g) 7.600 Weight of flask + product (g) 12.020 MW of 3-chloro-3-methylpentane (g/mol) 120.62 MW of 3-methyl-2-pentene (g/mol) 84.16 Chemical reaction: CH3C(C2H5)2Cl + KOH/Heat → C2H5C(CH3)=CHCH3 + KCl (a) Theoretical yield Mass... Your Full The Chemistry of Alkenes The synthesis of an alkene from 3-chloro-3methylpentane was done for this experiment. Beilstein. bromine and...
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Saponification of Triglycerides
6 pages (1500 words) , Download 1
...potassium hydroxide to produce glycerol... Saponification of Triglycerides I. Introduction Triglycerides, or triacylglycerols, are composed of three fatty acids linked to glycerol by fatty acyl esters (-O-CO-R). The fatty acids, straight-chain monocarboxylic acids, may be saturated (no C=C double bonds) or unsaturated. Fats and oils are trigylcerides. They are distinctive from the fact that at room temperature fats are solid and oils are liquid. In other words, liquid triglycerides are oils, while solid triglycerides are fats (Fessenden et al., 1998). Soapis produced by the saponification (hydrolysis) of a triglyceride. In this process the triglyceride is reacted with a strong base such as sodium or potas...
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Personnel Hazards of Dry Chemical Systems
1 pages (250 words)
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...potassium and urea-based potassium. Since the fire-extinguishing agent is in the form of fine particulates, the main concern is the inhalation of dust particles. This is especially the problem in total flooding than in local applications. Dry... Personnel Hazards of Dry Chemical Systems Dry chemical fire suppression systems delivers finely grounded flame-retardant powder onto a burning material. The powder suppresses fire in two ways. First, it interrupts the chemical chain reaction involved in the combustion. Second, the tremendous surface area of the particles allows it to absorb large amounts of heat and preventing re-ignition. Dry chemicals used include bicarbonate combinations with sodium,...
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Synthesis of Tris Pyrazolylborate
4 pages (1000 words)
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...potassium Trispyrazolylborate by the cyclic voltametry technique. The Trispyrazolylborate complex was prepared by reacting pyrazole with potassium borohydride and then its properties determined by performing a cyclic voltametry test. The solid obtained was 120.27g representing 57% yield and was a white crystalline solid highly soluble in water and organic solvents. It had a melting point of 180-1850C. Introduction Trispyrazolylborate (Tp) is an organic anionic tetra dentate or tripodal ligand that has the chemical... Synthesis and analysis of trispyrazolylborate Synthesis and analysis of trispyrazolylborate This report describes the p[reparation and determination of the properties of...
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Synthesis of Soap
1 pages (250 words)
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...potassium hydroxide. 15 ml of ethyl alcohol was added to the flask and the reaction mixture was heated on a water bath. Upon heating color change from colorless to slight yellow was observed. A 2 hoses reflux condenser was attached to the heated flask and the mixture was allowed to reflux for 15 minutes. The heat was turned off and the system was cooled. The reaction mixture was poured into a beaker containing... Your Module Synthesis of Soap The primary goal of this work is to synthesize soap from fat using the reaction below:Figure 1: Synthesis of soap (Clayden, et al., 1375). A round bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer was charged with 15 g of shortening, 15 ml (45%, 6.75 g, 0.12 mol) of po...
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Discuss the importance of soil in the environment
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...Potassium (K) are also present in the soil. Appropriate and balanced composition of these minerals defines soil fertility. Too high concentration of nitrogen retards the growth, while high concentration of phosphorus is responsible for reduced water absorption. High bulk of phosphate is responsible for binding with zinc and also hinder sulfur availability. High load of potassium curtails the availability... Soil is the most imperative part of the natural milieu. Life is impossible without soil as it holds biotic as well as abiotic components such as rivers, landforms and rocks. The nature of soil vary from place to place and hence it decides the distribution and range of biota. Soil controls the course...
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Clinical biochemistry 2
3 pages (750 words)
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...potassium, aldosterone and renin are checked to provide for a diagnostic evaluation of Conn’s syndrome. In this disease, low levels of potassium in the blood, high urinary potassium levels and a high aldosterone: renin ratio confirms the over activity of the adrenal gland. The levels of potassium are checked in the blood and potassium below 3mmol/l is seen in Conn’s syndrome. Urinary potassium over 24 hours is also tested... ? CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY Clinical Biochemistry Appraise the role of the clinical biochemistry laboratory in the assessment of adrenal function. Make reference to specific disease states/conditions and appropriate analytical techniques in your answer. The biochemistry laboratory is...
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Water: An Overlooked Essential Nutrient
4 pages (1000 words)
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...potassium. Such minerals are important for our bodies to retain fluid that is used to replace losses through exercise. In order to determine which fluids are best, we will look as information from three different types of fluids. Doing so will enable us to determine which drink may work best for our individual or unique situations. We will compare three fluids: Water, Gatorade and PowerAde (20 ounces or .59 liters). Below is a chart that contains nutrient information on each drink, including carbohydrate(CHO), Sodium(Na) and Potassium(K), published... Water: An Overlooked Essential Nutrient The adult human body is made up of 60% water. Loss of water through sweating and other...
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Discuss the mechanisms by which substances act directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause vasodilatation. In addition identify potential targets in vascular myocytes for development of new drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular disease
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...potassium channels resulting in the hyperpolarization of cell membranes and ultimately blood vessel dilation. On the other hand, nitrovasodilator group of drugs, like nitroprusside, simulates the action of the tonic or basal method of EDRF release by the vascular endothelium, mainly the activation of the guanylate cyclase to increase the levels cyclic guanosine monophospahate (cGMP) in the cells (Craig & Stitzel 2003). Calcium-channel antagonists. Calcium channel antagonists which are direct acting vasodilating agents include such drugs as amlodipine, felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine and nisoldipine. The common factor of this group is that they all act on the vascular... Substance-Induced ...
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Sodium
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...potassium trigger nerve impulses and muscle contractions when the change places across cell membranes. Sodium maintains fluid balance in the body. For example, via its ions (potassium), it attracts water to itself which ensures that hydration level in the body is optimal. It is significant to note that sodium is found in food such as fish, meat, pickled foods, olives, eggs, table salt, dairy foods and poultry (Gazzaniga 45). Excessive overdose of sodium causes hypertension which can cause many health problems. However, deficiency of sodium in the body can lead to serious health problems. For instance, deficiency of sodium in the body leads to...
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Aldosteronism Research Paper
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...potassium levels caused by an excess of the mineral corticoid called aldosterone.” (“Aldosteronism”, APMA para.1). An alternate name for this condition is Hyperaldosteronism. There are two types of Aldosteronism: Primary Aldosteronism and Secondary Aldosteronism. Aldosteronism is associated with other health problems such as heart disease and kidney disease. However most cases are caused by a tumor in the adrenal glands. Treatments for the disease include surgery, medications and certain lifestyle changes. Generally prognosis for treatment is positive but complications such as persistent high blood pressure may occur... ? Aldosteronism Aldostereonism “is a syndrome of high blood pressure and low blood...
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Block 6 (Week 11&12) Cardiovascular Physiology Exercise (Lab Exercise #6)
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...potassium intracellular. Concentration difference of the two on two sides of the membrane generates a resting membrane potential and the membranes are said to be polarized. The sodium, potassium and the calcium channels open in sequence during the nerve impulse leading to muscle contraction. Administration of sodium would disturb this depolarization/repolarization process and hence slow down the heart rate. 6. Where in a heart cell is sodium normally found? Sodium is extracellular... Exercise 6: Cardiovascular Physiology Worksheet Electrical Stimulation Activity Direct Heart Stimulation Single Stimulus Did you see any change in the trace? No change 2. Why or why not? Because the electrical stimulus w...
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The Real Number System and Order of Operations
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...Potassium Hydroxide;- These are the steps... Order of Operations al Affiliation Order of Operations Operator precedence or what is simply discussed as the order of operations is very important in mathematics. The same order of operations is applied in execution of commands in computer science making it an essential tool in mathematics. In order of operations PEMDAS is the acronym used to illustrate the way the orders are executed (Angel, 2011). P stands for parentheses or brackets. In any sum, first work on the numbers inside the brackets. For example, in 3 x (5-2), we first operate inside the parenthesis. 5-2=3, then 3 x 3 = 9. This is our final answer. E stands for exponents. These are the powers or t...
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Macronutrient Intake
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...potassium and iron. On the first day, she consumed 220mg of calcium, which was 780mg less than the recommended 1000mg per day. Potassium also emerged as a deficient nutrient with the patient consuming only 1321mg out of the targeted 4700mg. In addition, the patient consumed only 8mg of iron despite the targeted mass of 18mg. With respect to excess consumption of minerals... Nutritional Assessment Macronutrient Intake Based on the tree daily reports on average nutrient intake, it is apparent that the patient consumes in excess of daily requirement of all the three macronutrients. On the first day, the patient consumed approximately 56g of protein, which represents averagely 20% of daily calories...
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