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Rate of Glucose Uptake by Yeast Cells
4 pages (1000 words)
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...yeast cells with glucose concentration Introduction When yeast cells are added to a glucose solution, the glucose molecules are absorbed across the cell membranes. As time progresses, the concentration of glucose falls. When the surrounding temperature of the yeast cells is increased drastically, the yeast cells die and further uptake of glucose is stopped. When Benedict's reagent (Cu2+-citrate ion complex) is added to the glucose solution and then heated, a reaction occurs (Ege, 1994). In this reaction, glucose is oxidized to gluconic acid (exists as the gluconate ion in basic condition), while the Cu2+-citrate ion... Use of Benedict's solution to study the variation of the rate of glucose uptake by...
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The Effect Of Temperature On The Viability Of Yeast Cells
5 pages (1250 words)
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...yeast cells in a suspension of baker's yeast Background information Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. In reactions involving enzymes the molecules at the beginning are called the substrates, and the enzymes convert them into different molecules, the products. When subjected to high temperatures (above the enzymes optimum temperature) the enzyme becomes denatured, meaning it can no longer function as the substrate can not fit into the active site. Methylene blue can act as an artificial hydrogen acceptor which turns colourless when it is reduced during anaerobic... respiration. It's used as an indicator to find out whether a cell such...
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Yeast culture lab report
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Yeast Culture Lab I. Introduction Yeast is popularly known as Saccharomyces cerevesiae, is one of the important model organisms that could be cultured under laboratory conditions. Yeasts belong to the kingdom Fungi and is categorized as the eukaryotic, unicellular micro-organism. Some cell types proliferate by budding while other species proliferate or reproduce by means of binary fission. The size of the cell ranges from 3-4µm to as large as 40 µm in diameter. Yeast cells have simple requirements for their growth and proliferation. Yeast are popularly known to ferment sugar molecules. The yeast cells covert carbohydrates or sugar molecules to carbon-di-oxide... and alcohol....
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Yeast culture lab report
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Yeast Culture Lab I. Introduction Yeast is popularly known as Saccharomyces cerevesiae, is one of the important model organisms that could be cultured under laboratory conditions. Yeasts belong to the kingdom Fungi and is categorized as the eukaryotic, unicellular micro-organism. Some cell types proliferate by budding while other species proliferate or reproduce by means of binary fission. The size of the cell ranges from 3-4µm to as large as 40 µm in diameter. Yeast cells have simple requirements for their growth and proliferation. Yeast are popularly known to ferment sugar molecules. The yeast cells covert carbohydrates or sugar molecules to carbon-di-oxide... and alcohol....
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Yeast Culture Lab
6 pages (1500 words)
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...Yeast Culture Lab I. Introduction Yeast is popularly known as Saccharomyces cerevesiae, is one of the important model organisms that could be cultured under laboratory conditions. Yeasts belong to the kingdom Fungi and is categorized as the eukaryotic, unicellular micro-organism. Some cell types proliferate by budding while other species proliferate or reproduce by means of binary fission. The size of the cell ranges from 3-4µm to as large as 40 µm in diameter. Yeast cells have simple requirements for their growth and proliferation. Yeast are popularly known to ferment sugar molecules. The yeast cells covert carbohydrates or sugar molecules to carbon-di-oxide... and alcohol....
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AS OCR Biology Planning Exercise
4 pages (1000 words)
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...yeast cells in a suspension of baker’s yeast Background information Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. In reactions involving enzymes the molecules at the beginning are called the substrates, and the enzymes convert them into different molecules, the products. When subjected to high temperatures (above the enzymes optimum temperature) the enzyme becomes denatured, meaning it can no longer function as the substrate can not fit into the active site. Methylene blue can act as an artificial hydrogen acceptor which turns colourless when it is reduced during anaerobic... respiration. It’s used as an indicator to find out whether a cell such...
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An investigation to find out the effect of respiration in yeast when sugar is added to a flour-and-water dough
4 pages (1000 words)
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...yeast fermentation reaction is given below: C6H12O6 = 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 + energy, or glucose = ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide + energy (King, T.J and Roberts, Michael. 1987). For the yeast cell, this chemical reaction is essential to produce energy for life. Alcohol and the carbon dioxide are waste products produced by the yeast. These waste products are of great utility value. This chemical reaction, known as fermentation can be observed and measured by monitoring the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced as a result of the break down of glucose. Safety Points Pilot experiment: - several bowls were taken and a mixture of dough and beakers yeast and sugar were placed... An investigation to find out...
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Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana PM19 protein by functional complementation of yeast mutants
20 pages (5000 words)
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...cell membrane. 2.2 Potassium ion channels One of the protein types that is vital to cellular functions is transmembrane proteins, which allow the transfer of molecules in or out of the cell. Potassium ions (K+) are important in efficiency of cellular respiration, intracellular fluid balance and nutrient transfer (Skinner, 2005). This is why they are transported into the cells despite the already high intracellular concentration. In yeasts, they are transported into the cells by trk1, trk2 and t0k1 proteins, encoded by TRK1, TRK2and TOK1, respectively. Bertl, et al. (2003) developed yeast cell strains with mutated trk1, trk2 and/or tok1 genes... Until now, the function of transmembrane PM19 is still...
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Capture, Processing, and Presentation of Exogenous Antigen by Dendritic Cells
6 pages (2500 words)
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...yeast cells, fungal hyphae, and necrotic bodies. Danger signals Aside from taking up, processing, and presenting antigens, receptors perceive different danger signals. To initiate T cell responses, DCs modify their function based on the ‘danger’ signals received. Upon perception of these danger signals, the DCs mature and migrate to the lymphoid tissues to where they initiate immune responses. These receptors cause the DC to utilize intracellular machinery that allow the MHC class II to associate... Antigen Capture The immune system is a complex made up of proteins, cells and other molecular components that cooperatively work together to destroy foreign invaders of the...
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Molecules and Processes of Life Activity 6 - Cellular Respiration and the Effects of Pollutants on Its Rate
9 pages (2250 words)
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...cell respiration with changes in supply of a carbohydrate to the process. The test was also carried out also was to determine the effect of pollutants in an environment on respiration of organisms. The pollutants are thought to play a role in interruptions that occur in cellular respiration (Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers, 2006). Experiment on the effect was carried out using yeast and the focus of the experiment was given to the amount... Cellular respiration and effects of pollutants al Affiliation) The main reason for carrying out this experiment is to determine and understand how important cellular respiration is to life processes. The experiment also aims in determining the effect on the rate of cell...
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Medical Microbiology American Blastomycosis
5 pages (1250 words)
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...yeast form when the temperature hits 37 degree Celsius (Longo et al., 2012). Under the microscope, the yeast cells appear multinucleated, with thick refractile cell walls, usually measuring 8-15 uM in diameter (Longo et al., 2011). These cells reproduce by budding. Epidemiology Most cases of blastomycosis have been documented and reported in the United States. In fact, it is endemic in the southeastern and central portions of the US, which include the Ohio River, the Mississippi River, and the Great Lakes (Varkey and Raugi, 2011). The annual incidence of the disease, based on the previously confirmed cases, is one (1) for every 100,000 people in Kentucky, Mississippi... ?American Blastocymosis Background ...
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Biotechnology
8 pages (2000 words)
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...cells as expression systems. On the other hand, yeast cells firm the second category of expression systems used in the large-scale production of recombinant drugs. The fact that there is an advanced level of understanding their physiology and genetic constitution makes it easier to manipulate them genetically... Overview of the Upstream and Downstream Processes for Biopharmaceuticals Real Time Quality Control Overview of the Upstream and Downstream Processes for Biopharmaceuticals Real Time Quality Control The application of biotechnology has opened new realms that have presented opportunities for the large-scale production of drugs. However, the production involves multiple processes that range from ...
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Biotechnology
8 pages (2000 words)
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...cells as expression systems. On the other hand, yeast cells firm the second category of expression systems used in the large-scale production of recombinant drugs. The fact that there is an advanced level of understanding their physiology and genetic constitution makes it easier to manipulate them genetically through... Overview of the Upstream and Downstream Processes for Biopharmaceuticals Real Time Quality Control Overview of the Upstream and Downstream Processes for Biopharmaceuticals Real Time Quality Control The application of biotechnology has opened new realms that have presented opportunities for the large-scale production of drugs. However, the production involves multiple processes that range ...
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Drosophila
2 pages (500 words)
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...yeast. Researchers are able to feed the larva on the laboratory yeast cells to make the required scientific studies within the laboratory. The life cycle... Biology Drosophila Drosophila is the best genetic model for innumerable laboratory experiments because they are small in size. They incubate without difficulty in a laboratory setting. This helps in monitoring of the growth rate and other aspects of this species in the progression of growing. They have a relatively short life cycle, which helps in swift research findings as compared to other species of flies. The drosophila qualifies to be the best for trialing because they have only four chromosomal pairs. This makes the studies easy for the...
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The Kingdoms of Organisms
1 pages (250 words)
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...cells and are called multicellular organisms. They are non-motile and their structure encompass hyphae and mycelium. These organisms do not possess chlorophyll and are dissimilar to plants. This group includes organisms of diverse size from microscopic yeast cells to large mushrooms. Fungi derive their nutrition by means of absorption. They proliferate on the dead as well as decaying organic matter and procure nutrition. E.g. molds, yeasts, mildew, smuts and mushrooms. IV. Kingdom Plantae- This kingdom includes multicellular organisms, with well defined nucleus, enclosed... Kingdoms of Living Organisms" (http winnivangessel.home.insightbb.com/MMSK/5_kingdoms.htm) Introduction Life started off on the...
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Scientific Poster presentation: Antifoam addition to shake flask cultures of recombinant Pichia pastoris increases yield
3 pages (750 words)
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...yeast cells, protein product or protein purification, these instruments require substantial study to achieve optimum output in recombinant protein production with P. pastoris. We want to find out if antifoams (Antifoam A (Sigma), Antifoam C (Sigma), J673A (Struktol), P2000 (Fluka) and SB2121 (Struktol)) affect recombinant yield (recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)) in shake-flask of P. pastoris and investigate their essential mechanisms. To specifically find potential result regarding the above concern, we ensure uniform employment of P. pastoris strain X33 throughout the entire experimental procedures. Cells were cultured in shake flasks and tested with antifoams to find... Antifoam addition...
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Construction & Diagnostic of Recombinant DNAPlasmid
13 pages (3250 words) , Download 1
...Cell Biology Laboratory Mini Research Paper "Construction & Diagnostic of Recombinant DNA Plasmid" Abstract This paper is a presentation of the results of different laboratory experiments. One experiment led to the other. The target of laboratory one was to measure the level of competency exhibited by E. coli cells exposed to a chemical method of increasing competency. The chemical used was Calcium Chloride. The experiment established that the competency of cells increased greatly. In the next experiment, running PCR provided me with an amplified His3 gene which id used in subsequent steps to transform haploid yeast. Transformation occurred through homologous recombination... for one of the...
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Critical Review of: Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is mediated by Set1 and required for cell growth and rDNA silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2 pages (500 words)
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...Yeast cells that have been treated with H3 methylation that is free from Set1 have been found to have defects and this implies that Set1 mediated H3 Lys4 is important for normal growth. (Zhang X, 2005). To expound on the role of H3 Lys4 methylation a peptide that contained H3 was synthesized. After conjugation to a protein( carrier protein) it was used to immunize a rabbit. There was a strong... Lecturer Critical review of the research paper: “Histone H3 lysine methylationK is mediated by Set1 and H3’s requirement for cell growth and rDNA silencing”. This article revolves around Genetics and epigenetics. Genetics is a biology discipline that studies the composition and structure of genes. According t...
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Biology 101
4 pages (1000 words)
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...cells (e.g bacterial or yeast cells... ) that are actively respiring can be given sugar substrate which has been synthesized with the oxygen isotope 18O. The cells are exposed to regular oxygen which carries the commonly occurring 16O isotope. After some time, gases are to be collected from the headspace and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis which can separate the CO2 based on their molecular weights. If the oxygen in the carbon dioxide came from the sugar, it will be present in higher concentration at a higher molecular weight (because the labeled 18O will have heavier mass). If the oxygen came from the air, then the reverse would be true. 2. A food manufacturer is...
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Population Screening for Cervical Cancer
5 pages (1250 words)
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...cell samples are collected with the help of a spatula by scrapping the ectocervix and another sample is collected by using a cotton-tipped swab or a brush from endocervix. The samples are then smeared on to a slide and examined under a microscope, but there are some limitations to this method. First the cells may be piled up due to which the cells underneath may not be clearly visible, second the cells may dry up and appear distorted if not properly treated with alcohol, third vaginal or cervical infections may result in inflammatory (pus) cells, increased mucus, yeast cells, or bacteria hiding the cervical cells. In the newer liquid based Pap... Running head: POPULATION SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER...
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Wine Making Essay
4 pages (1000 words)
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...yeast to the must in the primary fermentation container. Cover the bottle with clean plastic, but not too taut, to let the gases escape. The fermentation process means that the yeast is converting the natural sugars into alcohol, which takes about 10 days (Great Homemade Wine). The perfect environment for yeast cells to ferment the juice is to maintain the optimum temperature of 22° C (72° F), though anywhere between 21-24° C (70-75° F) range is acceptable too (Great Homemade Wine). If it is warmer, the homemade wine will ferment too quickly, which will result to lost aroma and poor flavor (Great Homemade Wine... 13 February Wine making Today, I will break a common misconception that wine has to be...
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The Glycolysis Process in Humans and in Yeast
2 pages (500 words)
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...Yeast Glycolysis is the reactive process that splits glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate yielding 2 molecules of ATP for energy storage and 2 molecules of the NADH electron carrier known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers 2006 p.101). The process is broken into two groups known as the energy investment phase and the energy generation phase (McMurray & Castellion 2003 p.670). In the first five investment steps, the body expends 2 ATPs to convert the glucose into 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate that will process in the generation phase separately. These two molecules will each yield 2 ATPs and 1 NADH during the 5-step... The Glycolysis Process in Humans and in...
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Potential impact of biotechnology on modern society
4 pages (1000 words)
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...cell biology, colloid chemistry, embryology, ecology, genetics, immunology, molecular biology, medical chemistry, pharmacology, virology and many such fields. Global impact and current excitement of biotechnology on modern society:- Each and every organism performs its function within its optimum limits. yeast cells have been genetically manipulated to produce... INDEX Introduction to biotechnology Application in healthcare Agriculture Environment Potential impact of biotechnology on modern society. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ON MODERN SOCIETY Many areas of biotechnology have arisen through the interaction between various parts of biology and engineering, biochemistry, biophysics, c...
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Cell biology questions
4 pages (1000 words)
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...yeast cells and successfully transcribed and translated, where would this protein be found in the cells and why? For every challenge in the body mechanisms, there is always a way out. Thus in the case of no ER signal sequence, it is still possible to engineer... Assignment C. what accounts for a reduced mobility of certain integral membrane proteins when examined by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)? It is true that FRAP is one of the most effective means by which lateral diffusion in different types of membrane are measured. It entails absorption of one type of color and release of another color of a certain wavelength. Actually to be precise, it emits a green color which has a certai...
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Endocrine Disruptors
4 pages (1000 words)
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...yeast or antagonists: cannot detect proestrogens; produce baculovirus system can be used requires radioligand: serum-binding to milligram quantities of receptor proteins absent; no in vivo pharmacokinetics; artifactual competition by chemicals at high concentrations due to detergent-denaturation effects. Cell proliferation Simple to perform; large-scale screening; Only a few cell lines are estrogen animals not required; direct cell exposure; responsive: 4-6 d incubation period; few false... Endocrine Disruptors The harmful effects of exposure to environmental pollutants on reproduction and development in wildlife populations have been acknowledged and reported in the scientific literature for...
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Genome Science and Biological Exploration
8 pages (2000 words)
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...yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on a genome-wide level Advancement in technology in the field of genome science has been instrumental in the current revolution in the approaches used in biological exploration, which allows the study of organisms in a genomic-wide level. The use of DNA microarrays in characterising the whole genome expression has been instrumental in the provision of a picture of the genome of an organism in action, which reveals thousands of genes in action at a time. A 1997 study by Derisi et al. used DNA microarrays to follow the process through which yeast cells naturally transitioned from their stage...  Genome Science and Biological Exploration Qn. 1 Gene Expression in the yeast Sac...
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Lab 4
3 pages (750 words)
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...yeast Substrate-Hydrogen peroxide Response to Question 2 The rate of reaction in tube 1 was rapid followed by tube 2 and in tube 3 it was the slowest. This difference was because of the differences in the concentration of yeast cells that produces catalase enzyme directly proportion to the amount in each tube. The higher the concentration of catalase enzyme the higher the rate of reaction and vice versa. In other words the more yeast put in the Hydrogen Peroxide the more violent the reaction; therefore, giving off more... ? Lab 4: Enzyme Experiment Effect of enzyme concentration Data Table Effect of enzyme concentration on the production of gas Response to Question 1 Enzyme-Catalase produced by the yeast ...
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Bioprocessing and industrial Biotechnology
11 pages (2750 words)
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...Yeast cells, insect cells, fungi, mammalian cells can be used for the production... Bioprocessing and industrial Biotechnology Introduction: The Biotechnology industry has developed a lot and they are concentrating more on the production of the recombinant proteins using a wide host ranges. Some of the important application of these proteins includes the necessity of them at large concentrations for the screening applications and structural determinations. The need for the new pharmaceutical products that effectively reduce the disease or cure them is also much necessary. Similarly the cost involved for the production of these pharmaceuticals is also more important. So the production technologies that...
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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
14 pages (3500 words)
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...yeast. Heat Regulatory Elements Heat shock proteins (hsp) genes have been found in almost all cells examined so far (Amin et al, 1988). They are usually silent at normal growth temperatures but are expressed at very high levels at above-normal temperatures or in cells incumbent under other types of stress. The encoded proteins can... www.academia-research.com Sumanta Sanyal d: 03/03/07 Endurance Thresholds to Various Stress Factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Introduction This paper is put together in preparation of a project that aims to investigate stress conditions under which the (heat sho...
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Medical Microbiology - GI Tract, CNS, Urogenital Tract
30 pages (7500 words)
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...yeast cells causing 90% of the chronic fungal meningitis... Urogenital Infections The urinary infections occur heavily in the anterior and vagina regions. In our body the preventive mechanisms like the lining of the bladder, antimicrobial properties of urine are also present. If the kidney is affected by urinary infection, the infection is termed as acute pyelonephritis, in bladder –cystitis, in urethra- uretritis. Lactobacillus, streptococci and staphylococci are the general micro flora of the UTI. Women and children of 2 years are more prone for UTIs. It is the second most common type of infection in our body. In UTIs, the ascending UTI is more common than descending UTIs. The infections are usually...
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Essay for fermentation lab
15 pages (3750 words)
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...yeasts in the production of bread and alcohol. It was around that time that observations were made about Saccharomyces cerevisiae; also known as baker’s yeast. Nowadays fermentation is one of the most important processes involved in the production of many products including wine, dairy products, fuels, single cell proteins and antibiotics. Saccharomyces cerevisiae are classified as unicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom of fungi. It has a very... ? Fermentation The process of fermentation has been in used for centuries. As the importance of fermentation increases day by day in many industries one must understand the factors which may increase or decrease the rate of the process. As fermentation...
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CRISPR/CAS9 in Toxoplasma gondii
12 pages (3000 words)
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...yeast cells. (Horvath & Barrangou, 2010). The induction of the double strand breaks near the targeting site will increase the recombination efficiency around 4000 times. A gRNA cassette with a promoter, gRNA sequence, oligonucleotide donor DNA and terminator were successfully transformed into the yeast cells using the CRISPR/Cas system. (Sampson et al., 2013). The human U6 promoter is used to drive... CRISPR/Cas 9 system is widely used for genome engineering in eukaryotic organisms, because it helps in the rapid generation of the cell lines with the modified alleles. CRISPR along with Cas9 acts as an auto immune system to the body, with the Cas proteins converting the foreign DNA into small...
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Microbial fuel cells and how cay they produce electricity
7 pages (1750 words)
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...cell will work (Overview). Experimental Growth & Microbial Fuel Shewanell oneidensis strain MR-1 grows under anaerobic conditions in freshwater. It grows in the medium incorporated with lactate (20mM), Fe(III) citrate (50mM), while medium contains 0.05% (w/v) of yeast extract (Lovely et al... ?"Microbial Fuel Cells" Electri has become the most vital component of human survival. To meet the mounting demands for electri new possibilities are constantly being excavated. Micro-organisms are exploited to meet these rising demands. Intensive studies have been carried out in recent years to utilize micro-organisms as a resource for energy generation. The present experiment was conducted to understand the...
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Cells
3 pages (750 words)
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...Cells Our body consists of small particles, which are called cells. Every cell is a small alive organism: it can feed, reproduce and interact with other cells. Many cells of one type form tissues our organism consists of. Every cell consists of nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm and covered with thin covering - membrane. Cytoplasm is water, which contains different nutritious substances such as carbohydrates, proteins etc. nucleus contains the substance called DNA, which contains the coding of all the genetic information. Different types of cells fulfill different tasks,...
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Enzymes
12 pages (3000 words)
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...cells, it takes time for the yeast to produce enough of these enzymes to break down significant quantities of starch in the bread. This is the reason for long fermented doughs such as sour dough. Modern bread making techniques have included amylase enzymes into bread improver thereby making the bread making process faster and more practical for commercial use..Bacillary amylase is also used in detergents to dissolve starches from fabrics. Workers in factories that work with amylase for any of the above uses are at increased risk of asthma ("occupational asthma"). 5-9% of bakers have a positive skin test, and a fourth to a third to a third of bakers with...
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Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals does it work in practice
8 pages (2000 words)
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...yeast cells” (Jayabarath, Sundar, Arulmurugan, Giridhar, 2009). (b) Dependent accumulation of heavy metals in the process of metabolism. Heavy metal ions are transferred to cells basing on the cell membrane. Nevertheless, ions are precipitated around the cells, and are collected intracellularly as compared with metal-binding proteins. There are many external factors, which exert a serious influence on heavy metals absorption. These are: pH, anions, cations and organic materials etc (Environmental... Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals – does it work in practice? Introduction In the modern world environmental pollution is one of themost challenging issues. It is relevant to solve this problem by means...
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Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals : does it work in practice
8 pages (2000 words)
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...yeast cells” (Jayabarath, Sundar, Arulmurugan, Giridhar, 2009). (b) Dependent accumulation of heavy metals in the process of metabolism. Heavy metal ions are transferred to cells basing on the cell membrane. Nevertheless, ions are precipitated around the cells, and are collected intracellularly as compared with metal-binding proteins. There are many external factors, which exert a serious influence on heavy metals absorption. These are: pH, anions, cations and organic materials etc (Environmental... ? Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals – does it work in practice? Introduction In the modern world environmental pollution is one of the most challenging issues. It is relevant to solve this problem by means ...
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Yeast Infections
5 pages (1250 words)
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...Yeast infections are very common and are caused by fungus that can survive anywhere including the human body. The scientific for yeast is Candida. The human body’s immune system usually keeps the amount of yeast infection causing bacteria under control and if the immune is weak (sickness etc) then these bacteria can multiply rapidly and cause yeast infections. A common misconception about yeast infections is that vaginal yeast infections are the only form of yeast infections that occur in the human body. This is certainly not true however and other forms of...
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The Mechanism of Dis2 Phosphorylation by Chk1 and Cell Cycle Regulation
40 pages (10000 words)
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...yeast strains lviii 2.9. Preparation of membrane lx 2.10. Chk1-HA shift experiment lx 2.11. TCA protein extraction lxii 2.12. Immune localization of proteins in yeast cells lxiv 2.13. Drop test lxviii 2.14. Preparation of cells for imaging lxix 2.15. Acute cell survival lxxi Chapter 3 lxxiv Results lxxiv 3.1. Dephosphorylation of Chk1 at 40°C is not affected by Dis2 phosphatase... ? Study on the Mechanism of Dis2 Phosphorylation by Chk1 and Cell Cycle Regulation Contents PAGE Declaration:…………………………………………………………………………i Acknowledgment v Hypothesis vii 1. Abstract ix 2. Abbreviations: xii 3. Keywords xiii 4. List of tables xiii 5. List of figures xv Chaper 1 xvii Introduction xvii 1.1. Structure and...
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Bio Chemistry
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...cells (algae, bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) grown and harvested for animal or human food. During World War II, when there were shortages in proteins and vitamins in the diet, the Germans produced yeasts and a mold (Geotrichum candidum) in some quantity for food. Research on SCP has been stimulated by a concern over the eventual food crisis or food shortages that will occur if the world's population is not controlled. Many scientists believe that the use of microbial fermentations and the development of an industry to produce and supply SCP are possible solutions to meet a shortage of protein if and when the amount of protein produced or obtained by agriculture... [The [The [The Biochemistry For...
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Exam 1
4 pages (1000 words)
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...Yeast cells break down glucose anaerobically into A) ethanol and CO2 B) lactic acid and CO2 C) lactic acid and H2O D) ethanol and H2O 15. The net energy gain from complete cellular respiration is A) 2 ATP B) 4 ATP C) 8 ATP D) 36-38 ATP 16. Carbon dioxide is released in A) the light... ?UMUC Bio 103 Fall EXAM 60 points Please submit your answers as a MS Word attachment to your Assignment Folder. Submit only the numbered answers to the questions; do not include the original questions. For the multiple choice questions, just submit the letter that corresponds with your answer. Exam 1 is due Tuesday 9 October. Late exams may not be accepted. You are expected to submit your own work. This exam is "open-book". ...
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Biotechnology (microbial fuel cells)
12 pages (3000 words)
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...Yeast extract (contains Vitamins) 500 mg/l 1000 mg/l Preparation of sucrose solution for anode chambers with 50-g/l concentrations 25 g of sucrose was added to 500 ml of water in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The mixture was stirred... Fourth experiment The first experiment was repeated to generate voltage from synthetic wastewater using the microorganism Shewanella oneidensis. Mostof the procedures were performed as they were carried out in the first three experiments. Preparation of synthetic waste-water components for 2 litres NaHCO3 480 mg/l * 2 litres = 960 mg/l NH4Cl 95.5 mg/l 191 mg/l K2HPO4 10.5 mg/l 21 mg/l KH2PO4 5.25 mg/l 10.5 mg/l CaCl2.2H2O 63.1 mg/l 126.2 mg/l MgSO4 19.2 mg/l 38.4 mg/l Yeast ...
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Young woman with a urinary tract infection and abdo pain
8 pages (2000 words)
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...cells, casts, crystals, bacteria, parasites, yeast and protein matter. While these could portend a different problem altogether –Red Flags or Haematuria and their combined... ?Evidence-based medical practices (EBP) have proven helpful in accurate diagnosis and management of most diseases and conditions. The practices entail the use of available research and findings to refine and enrich health care services offered. The model systematically evaluates prevailing and valid research findings in answering clinical questions and affording treatment. The integration of evidence-based practices in health care facilities aims at providing external scientific evidence with regard to clinical settings as a way to...
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Orphan Brands
22 pages (5500 words)
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...yeast in the brewing process, thus rupturing the yeast cells by osmotic pressure-and then concentrating the resulting sludge." (Se.amus, 2001, pg. 1) 4. Is it vegetarian "Marmite is approved by the Vegetarian Society. During the brewing process, some brewers add isinglass (extracted from the swim bladder of some poor Sturgeon) to help clarify their beer. However, the yeast extract is removed before the finings are added, so yes it is vegetarian. Other (cheaper) finings are available to brewers, and if the beer is brewed correctly, no clarification agents... Orphan Brands Marmite April 6, 2007 Introduction According to the definition on given by WordSpy (2008, pg an orphan brand is "A once-famous brand...
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Genetic Engineering
9 pages (2250 words) , Download 1
...yeast cells or bacteria to enable scientists study the protein or gene it produces more easily. Genes are sometimes put into plants or animals [4]. One of the first genetic engineering projects engaged the hormone insulin. Diabetes, a medical problem that affects millions of people worldwide, inhibits the body from producing sufficient insulin hormone required for regulation of blood sugar levels. Initially, this medical condition was treated... Genetic Engineering Introduction Also known as gene modification, genetic engineering refers to the manipulation of genes. This technology involves removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into another organism. The removed genes are often put into...
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Effect of antifungal drugs on Cadida Albicans
45 pages (11250 words)
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...yeast-form cells of C. albicans, which can be encouraged to form hyphal germ tubes within a range of different growth media (Odds, 1985). During the process of germ tube development, new cell wall material is formed primarily at the hyphal apex where minimal lateral expansion occurs. Although yeast-form cells experience an additional component of non... ? An exploration of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical antifungal agents on Candida albicans is discussed. The history of the organism is given, in addition to the most efficacious drugs by which the pathogen can be controlled. Methods are given that allow clinicians to test drug sensitivity against various clinical isolates. Recommendations are given...
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ORelease of genetically engineered microorganisms : opportunities and pitfals
13 pages (3250 words)
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...yeasts” (Discovery Channel What are some important uses of genetic engineering? Par. 1). In the United Kingdom, researchers developed a treatment against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using the bacterium Bacteroides ovatus which “activates a protein when exposed to a specific type of sugar, xylan. The bacterium is able to deliver the protein, a human growth factor called KGF-2, directly to the damaged cells that line the gut, unlike other treatments which can cause unwanted side effects. It reduced rectal bleeding, accelerated the healing of the gut lining, and reduced inflammation. It was also able... Genetically Engineered Microorganisms: Opportunities and Pitfalls Genetically engineered...
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Cloning: Is it Ethical
8 pages (2000 words)
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...Yeast cells, plasmids, bacteria or viruses are categories of vectors which are minute DNA circles possessed by bacteria. When the gene has been inserted, the vector is put in a laboratory state that will stimulate it to reproduce, and will result to gene replication. Despite the few advantages that cloning may be attributed to, there are a host of disadvantages too. The most fundamental is that is it unethical and does not have any morals attached to it. This act can simply be termed as ‘playing God,’ who, the bible says, created us in his image and does not want us to change in any manner and form. The contribution of the priests and other church leaders towards... Task: Cloning Introduction New...
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Calories restriction and health in medical improvement
26 pages (6500 words)
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...cell level through autophagy is considered the common denominator in all the manipulative regimens. Studies involving yeast and insects have led to the identification of conserved genes that act to extend life span. Among such life span extending genes is Sirtuin 1, which is a phytogenetically conserved NAD... ? Calories Restriction and Health in Medical Improvements Calorie restriction as a possible solution for health related problems has gained ground as more and more of the benefits of calorie restriction are uncovered. The benefits that can be gained from calorie restriction extend from reduction in the aging processes and extension of life span to calorie restriction as an adjuvant in the treatment ...
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The mechanisms that underlay the repairs of DNA damages
22 pages (5500 words)
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...Yeast Medium) This is a medium that contains a high concentration of the required yeast cells per unit of solution. The procedure for making it is as below. 2.1.4.3.1 YEA preparation A suitable selective dropout media is prepared as follows: 100 ml of the appropriate sterile 10X Dropout Solution 6.7 g Yeast nitrogen base without amino acids 20 g Agar (for plates only) 850 ml H2O Adjust the pH to 5.8 if necessary, and autoclave. Allow medium... ? Chapter 2 College Objective The objective of this project is to understand the mechanisms that underlay the repairs of DNA damages induced by nucleoside analogues. This will be observed through assessing the role of DNA repair mechanisms in survival to nucleoside ...
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