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Diabetes - Research Paper Example

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Based on the level of insulin secreted, diabetes is classified under three types: 1. Type 1 diabetes, which is present from childhood, in which the body secretes little or no insulin. This is also referred to as insulin dependent diabetes and genetics, viruses or autoimmune problems with the islet cells have been proposed as major causes for this type of diabetes. 2. The type 2 diabetes is a more common form of the disease which manifests only in adulthood when the islet cells begin to secrete less amounts of insulin or the body does not respond well to the secreted insulin. Increasing lifestyle changes such as lack of body exercise and food habits have been considered to be the major causative factors along with a genetic predisposition to the disease. 3. The third and an increasing occurring type is gestational diabetes wherein the mother develops the type 2 form of the disease during pregnancy which increases the risk for both the mother and the developing infant. (Diabetes, 2010) Genetic factors In the case of type 1 diabetes, which is present from childhood, studies have shown that more than 20 regions of the genome might be responsible for genetic susceptibility to the disease. Increased risk to the disease has been found to be associated with the genes present in the HLA region of chromosome 6 which includes HLA-DR, DQ, and DP. The various haplotypes of these genes are associated with increased risk for the disease in various populations and the presence of two such haplotypes together further compounds the risk for the disease. In addition, the presence of variants of the INS (insulin) gene located in chromosome 11, also predisposes the individual for the disease. Another gene that have been associated with the disease include variants of the CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated 4) gene which is located on chromosome 2. The genes associated with type 2 diabetes are those which are involved in pancreatic beta-cell function, insulin action, metabolism of glucose and other conditions such as lipid metabolism and energy uptake and release. Some of the candidate genes for the disease include PPAR?, ABCC8, KCNJ11, and CALPN10. In the case of maturity-onset diabetes of the young, which is the type 2 form of the disease that occurs before 25 years of age, is linked to mutations that occur in at least 6 genes which are associates with beta cell function as all the genes are expressed within the islet cells of the pancreas (Genetics and Diabetes, n.d). Psychological aspects of the disease The initial response of the individual to the disease is associated with shock and anger as it is a lifelong condition and demands a lot of restrictions and a strict life style for controlling the disease. Beginning with food restrictions and following a routine of walking and exercise, the condition also requires continuous follow-ups and is also interlinked with various other illnesses. The long term nature of the disease has also been linked to development of anxiety and depression which in turn depend on their ability to cope with the limitations imposed by the disease. Such individuals also often feel isolated and dependent on people for their daily activities, which would be more obvious in case of children (Chandra, 1997). Medical and psychological interventions The presence of diabetes needs to be confirmed through proper diagnostic and screening procedures. Diagnostic tests are taken ...Show more


Biology of the disease Diabetes is characterized by a rise in blood sugar levels which occurs when the body is unable to metabolize the sugar through the insulin hormone. Insulin is a pancreatic hormone which is produced by the islet cells and is secreted to move the glucose in the blood stream to the muscle and fat tissues for later metabolism into energy…
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Diabetes essay example
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The reason that I am researching this topic is because of how common diabetes has become, especially in our significantly obese society. Furthermore, as a result of the increased numbers of people with obesity, the amount of children being diagnosed with diabetes is steadily rising.
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102). People with advanced sugar in the blood repeatedly experience unending urination and they also experience regular levels of thirst (American Diabetes Association 1). As a result, diabetes is a disease that revolves around the levels of glucose in the blood along with the secretion of insulin in addition to the response of the body to insulin.
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I have chosen to deal with diabetes because some members of my family have been found to have it and it is possible that it is a genetic condition. I would like to help them as best as I can by learning more about the disease as well as its early symptoms so that the risk of its getting another member of my family, or me, by surprise is minimized.
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These include eating of excess junk food and lack of exercises, especially for obese children. It is also passed through human genes in the family history but when detected earlier can be prevented. This means the essay tackles how diabetes is caused by various apparent symptoms and the characteristics of types of diabetes.
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Diabetes is a condition characterized by elevated blood sugar levels, also known as hyperglycemia. The diagnostic symptoms of diabetes include increased frequency of urination, excessive thirst, blurred vision, tiredness etc.  In a normal person, special pancreatic cells called the beta cells produce insulin. 
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Diabetes exhibits itself in the body in various forms or types and it causes high blood glucose levels in the body due to inability to produce or successfully use insulin. As a precaution doctors have come up with several diagnostic tools to be used in detecting diabetes in the body.
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Diabetes is classified as a syndrome because it affects most of the organs in the human body resulting in other disease states. Diabetes is classified into types which are Type I diabetes mellitus and Type II diabetes mellitus. Type I diabetes mellitus mostly occurs at an early age and it is an autoimmune disease where the cells of the pancreas are destroyed.
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ecreted by the beta – cells of the pancreas in response to an increase of sugar in the blood and functions to regulate the blood glucose level (Free Online Health, 2009 and Mathur, 2011). In the United States, about 215,000 people under 20 years old were diagnosed with type 1
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According to AHRQ (2012), the most affected groups in the United States are the Minorities, especially the Hispanic community followed by individuals of Black-American origin. The individuals most affected are usually above the age of 45, since their
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