Finally, two sections examine the theories of Hallinger and Kantamara (2003) and Bolom and Turner (2003). The objective of this literature review is to critically analyze the report whilst keeping the dissertation's objective, identified problems and aim or research questions as a guide. Further, the need for further research from new questions that will arise from this review will justify the need of the dissertation on the subject of why individuals have difficulties participating in staff development. Section I - Quality Education The fundamental question asked concerns education in the 21st century and challenges both future appropriateness of the educational system and its delivery. In reality, the 21st century is something we know very little about, as we are only just 10 years into this century and the new millennium. The future is unknown and therefore one can only forecast, project and extrapolate as to what might be, based on what is already know. Ideology in education is an evolutionary process. Dominant views on education have influenced teachers for decades. For example, goals to provide equal opportunities and use of young people as a resource for the nation were initiated in from post-war years up to the early 1970s as part of economic expansion. Similarly, the Plowden Report supported child-centred teaching methods to focus on the unique development of each child, becoming known as ‘progressivism’. This ideology is Liberal Romanticism, which also values diversity and individual difference. In the early to mid-1970s, standards were said to have regressed (‘Black Papers’) because curriculum design and organization lacked rigor. In response, the ideology of Educational Conservatism was introduced which emphasized “the transmission of established social values, knowledge and culture through a subject-orientated approach,” as stated by Pollard & Tann (1990 p 40). The good teacher would reflect on such ideologies and extract ‘the wheat from the chaff’ to improve his own approach to teaching. While such pragmatic values seem promising in theory, the reality of the situation is such that teacher training and curriculum development must develop more objective means of understanding. While the good teacher should have a thirst for continual improvement, this best occurs within an objective framework. As previously mentioned, I personally self-assess my own performance at the end of each lesson. If a lesson has been observed or I have been using classroom assistants, I actively seek their constructive criticism, as I want to be become not only a good teacher but a first class one. Such self-reflexivity is best supplemented with the university model. Pollard & Tann (1990 p 14) state “practical experience and related discussions at university seem to be more powerful influences for PGCE students on their professional development than their subject studies.” In attempting to become a first class teacher, I found this to be consistently accurate. I am always willing to learn from experienced professionals and lectures. When not teaching, I use the time to observe others to learn valuable experiences. I found my university workshops an excellent source of ideas and an excellent forum to share and learn the best practices. The question to be asked is not “what is the reason for education?” but “is it a good education?” A good education should seek to “
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Chapter 2 – Literature review The literature review covers a broad range of topics related to education and professional development. The overriding intention is to develop a perspective on the nature of education as a means of determining what constitutes appropriate professional development…
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Whether a company decides to use internal or external training programs, it is essential for employee development. It could consist of classroom training, on-the-job training, or lectures. Since every individual learns
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