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Business Behavior in a Changing World II - Coursework Example

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Business Behavior in a Changing World II

Creativity is considered central to innovation, seen as a complex process. Issues surrounding knowledge diffusion and intellectual property rights discussed. Policy should align research (academia) and funds (industry) within a broad innovation policy. Organisational use of technology seen as means of improving social and economic conditions within the country. Costing of R&D is discussed, highlighting problems for organisational accounting, including long term focus and lack of outcome predictability. Annotation Several of Metcalf’s definitive assumptions need questioning. All developments are apparently driven and/or funded by industry, which does not allow for academic knowledge providing new insights from which innovation can stem. New technology is considered the basis of innovation, when existing technology can be used in different, innovative ways. Technology is assessed according to its economic value, ignoring the need for knowledge generation to enable technology creation. The distinction between science as academic and technology as practical is arbitrary and questionable. Innovation is seen as linear and cumulative, ignoring leaps in ideas and creativity generating new technologies. (196 words) Policy Reader Chapter 8: National Systems of Innovation Freeman, C. ...
1 pp.5-24 Overview Freeman provides historical context for the importance of local/national innovation systems, beginning with List’s interdependencies of resources and industry, science and education. List advocated state involvement for long-term policies relating to industry and the economy as national innovation systems. In-house R&D functions produced growth in research but highlighted the need for rapid knowledge diffusion for progress and the importance of qualitative and quantitative factors. Globalisation introduced nation variations leading to diverse outcomes and a global position built on local success. National innovation systems should involve policies for local innovation and diffusion and includes organisation and management changes. Annotation Freeman’s views, including the different histories, ignore the political effect on economics, giving different meaning to long-term. Long-term is relative and context-specific, not a national or global standard. The process of innovation development is portrayed as logical and linear, which is unlikely. Using the past is no guide to a future which is already substantially different to 1995. Mention of economic geography links to Krugman’s ideas of free trade and developed and developing nations. No consideration is given to the social impacts of the dichotomy, nor the issue of potential exploitation of the developing by the developed. (194 words) Policy Reader Chapter 9: The Competitive Advantage of Nations Porter, M. E. (1990) ‘Chapter Nine – The Competitive Advantage of Nations’ in Suneja, V. (ed.) Policy Issues for Business: a Reader Sage/The Open University, London Porter, M. E. (1990) ‘The Competitive Advantage of Nations’ Harvard Business Review March/April pp.73-93 Overview Porter ...Show more


Policy Reader: Section Three Annotated Bibliography Policy Reader Chapter 7: Science Policy and Technology Policy Metcalfe, J. S. (1997) ‘Chapter Seven – Science Policy and Technology Policy’ in Suneja, V. (ed.) Policy Issues for Business: a Reader Sage/The Open University, London Metcalfe, J…
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