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Coursework example - Business Behavior in a Changing World II
Finance & Accounting
Pages 4 (1004 words)
Policy Reader: Section Three Annotated Bibliography Policy Reader Chapter 7: Science Policy and Technology Policy Metcalfe, J. S. (1997) ‘Chapter Seven – Science Policy and Technology Policy’ in Suneja, V. (ed.) Policy Issues for Business: a Reader Sage/The Open University, London Metcalfe, J…
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Creativity is considered central to innovation, seen as a complex process. Issues surrounding knowledge diffusion and intellectual property rights discussed. Policy should align research (academia) and funds (industry) within a broad innovation policy. Organisational use of technology seen as means of improving social and economic conditions within the country. Costing of R&D is discussed, highlighting problems for organisational accounting, including long term focus and lack of outcome predictability. Annotation Several of Metcalf’s definitive assumptions need questioning. All developments are apparently driven and/or funded by industry, which does not allow for academic knowledge providing new insights from which innovation can stem. New technology is considered the basis of innovation, when existing technology can be used in different, innovative ways. Technology is assessed according to its economic value, ignoring the need for knowledge generation to enable technology creation. The distinction between science as academic and technology as practical is arbitrary and questionable. Innovation is seen as linear and cumulative, ignoring leaps in ideas and creativity generating new technologies. (196 words) Policy Reader Chapter 8: National Systems of Innovation Freeman, C. ...
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