Automated machines have displayed a high consistency, quality output and good work flow. They simplify production and reduce lead times. In regard to safety, they reduce the number of on-the-job casualties that can occur hence reduced medical bills for injured workers. They are a solution to harsh and dangerous working conditions and workplaces, for example, places with toxic fumes, under water and fire (Jeremy, 1995). They perform tasks that are beyond human capabilities, endurance and speed. Louise (2010) reveals that the drop in manufacturing employment is significant in America especially over the past decade. He further states that between the years 2000 and 2007 alone, there has been a 20% drop in manufacturing employment. The drop has increased further, because of the recent recession, by 15%. In many manufacturing companies, routine tasks have been automated. Therefore, there is no more need to have many workers. Manufacturing companies have witnessed improved production as a result of tapping into computers and other improved technology. Manufactures are also encouraged by the cost-efficiency of these automated machines and computers as compared to paying many workers. This has led to low cost of production and has translated to better profits and hence a good reason to keep out human labor to the best extend possible. This has led to many people loosing their jobs and the jobless remaining jobless (Jeremy, 1995). According to Louise (2010), there has been about six times increase in the amount of information processing equipment from the year 1987- 2007 in the US. These information processing equipment include robots and computers. Manufacturers also doubled the capital used per employee for each hour’s work in this period. This led to increased production capital thus reduced net profits. These advanced computers and robotics have increased production by enabling machines to perfume routine tasks better than men. This has encouraged replacement of the expensive, less productive human labor by of robots and computers. The loss of employment due to improved technology and computers is not only limited to manufacturing companies. Workers in other sectors have also been affected. For example, automated telephone switchboards and telephone answering have replaced telephone operators. In the medical fields such as electrocardiography or radiography, primary screening is now done faster and more accurately by automated systems. The analysis of human genes, tissues and cells is also done by automated machines. This has locked out medical personnel who are qualified to do these jobs (Brain, 2003). Automated video surveillance (AVS) was developed and applied for security purposes between 1997—1999. The airborne video surveillance (AVS) was developed between 1998 and 2002. These have been used in busy environments to monitor people. They record happenings, send warning signals incase of danger and alert authorities incase alarming situations happen therefore replacing a significant number of human security personnel (Brain, 2003). Tellers in banks have also been greatly affected due to development of automated teller machines (ATMs). For cash and other transactions, people no longer the need to visit banks and queue for a long time for these services. Due to growing demand for safety and mobility on the roads, there has been adoption of the automated highway systems. Over the last six years the US congress has allocated over $600million for the development of intelligent transport systems
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