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Regulated Power Supply - Coursework Example

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Regulated Power Supply

So what is a power supply? In the days before complicated ICs and complicated digital electronics, a simple power supply was composed of a transformer and a rectifier circuit. The transformer is where alternating current or AC voltage enters. AC voltage comes from the normal voltage from the electrical outlet at home. It carries with it alternating current and has to be transformed and rectified into direct current (DC) so that it can power up the electrical appliance. It has an input and an output. The output is the desired DC voltage for an electronic circuit which depends whether it is 6 volts or 12 volts or even higher. Since it is the heart and that it supplies the main lifeblood of an electronic system, it is easy to locate, and if one has become acquainted with it, easy to troubleshoot and repair. That is easy said than done, but in any electronic troubleshooting mastery of the block- and schematic diagrams and every detail of the circuitry will ensure a troubleshooting success. For electronic technicians and engineers, pinpointing the location of the power supply is as easy as troubleshooting itself. 1.1 Definition of terms 1.1.1 Transformer – A transformer is a devised used to transform voltages or current; the transformation is from higher voltage to smaller voltage (step-down transformer), or from smaller voltage to higher voltage (step-up voltage). Most electronic circuits in appliances and gadgets use step-down transformers. For example, if the power supply in our home is 220 volts or 110 volts, we are going to use a step down-transformer to transformer the higher voltage and current to 6 volts, 9 volts, or 12 volts, as the case maybe. 1.1.2 Alternating Current/Direct current (AC/DC) – The current that enters a transformer is known as alternating current (AC). This is a static current which do not respond to the needed direct current of an electronic circuit. Therefore, the AC current has to be transformed into a DC or direct current. The AC voltage/current comes from the utilities company that supplies our electrical needs at home. First, we have to compare the different types of current and be able to name the parts in it. As mentioned, there are two types of current – the alternating current and the direct current. The alternating current is not regulated – the sine waves are alternating, and this has to be rectified using a diode or diodes, with a capacitor and other filtering components, so that the circuit can produce an output of a DC current. After we have transformed the AC to DC, then we still have to regulate it to match the needed voltage and current that a particular electronic circuit needs. In our high-tech world nowadays, designs have eliminated the transformer and other analog circuits; instead, integrated (IC) circuits have replaced many of the components. 1.1.3 Rectifier Circuit A rectifier is a diode or a circuitry of diodes that transforms alternating current into direct current. In a simple rectifier circuit, a diode is coupled with a filter capacitor and load resister to complete the rectification process. This produces a half-wave and does not completely provide full rectification. 1.1.4 Regulator A regulator can be a transistor or an integrated circuit (IC). The purpose of a regulator is to provide a steady DC output. A well-regulated DC is needed in circuits to produce the needed output or purpose of that ...Show more


THE PURPOSE OF A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY AND THE SYSTEM INSIDE IT 1. Introduction The power supply is the most basic component of an electronic circuit. It is the heart of any electronic circuit, gadget or appliance system. Without it, no gadget or electronic system will function…
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