The cup viscometer measures the kinematic velocity of a fluid and the unit of viscosity measured by such a viscometer is centistokes (Viswanath). Purpose: To determine the viscosity of a given sample of lubricating oil of unknown viscosity, with the help of a Cup Viscometer and different commercially available oils of known viscosity. It can be hypothesized that as the viscosity increases, the flow decreases and thus the efflux time increases, i.e. substances with a higher viscosity would take more time to efflux from the cup viscometer to the beaker. Methodology: In this experiment a cup viscometer will be used to determine the viscosity of a sample of lubricating oil of unknown viscosity. The cup viscometer will first be constructed by using disposable Styrofoam cups and subsequently be used to measure the viscosity. The following equipment will be required to conduct the experiment: Three different types of commonly available oils with known viscosities, viz. Olive Oil Soyabean Oil Kerosene Oil A sample of the oil whose viscosity is to be determined, viz. lubricating oil Four disposable Styrofoam cups Burette Clamp or stand Four 100 ml graduated Cylinders Four beakers A skewer of uniform diameter to punch holes Scotch Tape An accurate Stopwatch The first part of the experiment is to construct a cup viscometer using disposable Styrofoam cups and calibrating it using oils of known viscosities. Four disposable Styrofoam cups are taken and holes are punched in their bottoms using a skewer of uniform diameter. One should be extremely careful while punching holes in order to ensure that all four holes are of the same diameter. Once the holes have been punched, scotch tape has to be applied at the bottom of all the cups in order to prevent the oil from leaking once it has been poured in to the cups. The cups are then marked as A, B or C, one for each different oil of known viscosity. The next step is the calibration of the cup viscometers prepared. This is achieved via pouring measured quantities (i.e. 60 ml) of the three different oils of known viscosities in to three different cup viscometers. Olive Oil is placed in Cup A, Soyabean Oil in Cup B and Kerosene Oil in Cup C. This can be achieved by using a graduated measuring cylinder to measure out 60 ml of each oil into the respective cups. While filling the graduated cylinders, it should be ensured that the cylinder is placed in a flat horizontal surface, in order to avoid any errors in measurements. Moreover, it is important to remember that most solutions would form a concave meniscus. Thus, while reading a meniscus, the bottom of the meniscus should be read and the meniscus should be kept at eye level in order to avoid parallax errors. Moreover, the meniscus should be read against a uniform background, which can be achieved by placing a white sheet of paper behind the level of the liquid. Once all the cups have been filled, one of the cups (i.e. Cup A) is suspended in a burette clamp and a beaker is placed underneath. The scotch tape is then carefully removed and the stopwatch started in order to time the experiment. The time required for 60 ml of Olive Oil to flow from the cup in to the beaker is recorded. The timing should start immediately after the removal of the scotch tape and should
Investigating the Properties of Oils Introduction: Viscosity is an inherent physical property of a fluid which confers resistance to flow (Viswanath). The viscosity of a fluid depends on several factors, including and not limited to, temperature and pressure…
This proves that plant can only photosynthesize at the time of day. The rate of photosynthesis depends on the intensity of light. Other than this, there are other limiting factors of the process as well. Temperatures, Concentration of CO2, water, wavelength of light are some of the main limiting factors of the process.
Methyl mercury, inorganic mercury compounds such as mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide, mercury vapor, ethyl mercury, phenyl mercury and hair mercury are the chemical forms of mercury to which people are commonly exposed. Major routes of exposure to mercury compounds are inhalation of contaminated air, ingestion of contaminated food and through eye or skin contact.
Citing instances of nations where crime rates are substantially lower in spite of high poverty, some authors argue that there is in reality no causality between crime and poverty. Others however strongly object citing instances such as majority of the population convicted serving out their jail terms come from poorer families or have relatively lower annual incomes.
The formation of carbonate rocks is affected by dissolution and is important in creating secondary porosity. Similarly compaction and cementation are critical to carbonate rock formation especially for the loss of porosity. Before cementation and compaction, other processes such as bioturbation and burrowing also affect carbonate rocks.
Crabtree (2010) illustrated that in the initial stage of ground investigation, desk study can be listed. According to Waltham (2010, pp44-45): a desk study is an office-based exercise in gathering published and available information, where the first target is to understand the geological map of the construction site.
On average, it produced (1440/12) = $120 per month. This is (120/1440*100) 8.33% of the total returns generated over the period.
Fulham residential market generated a total $1243 over the year. The average