Interest date data for bonds with different maturities date is published frequently and investors can use it to determine the term structure of interest rates. Some of the most popular interest rate data sources are the Wall Street Journal, Federal Reserve Bulletin and websites like Bloomberg and CNN. The term structure can be verified at any point in time by using published data from renowned sources. Yield curves are drawn using this published data on interest rates. There are short term and long term interest rates. Since long term interest rates have an element of maturity risk premium (MRP), they are usually higher than short term rates. When researching on the term structure of interest rates, it is important to have knowledge of commonly used terms like the Yield to Maturity (YTM), which is defined as the expected rate of return on a bond held till maturity (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2010). Another concept which is discussed with YTM is that of the zero coupon bonds (or discount bonds). A zero coupon bond is a financial asset which at the date of maturity T, pays its holder a lump sum amount, with no coupon payments before the date of maturity (hence the name zero-coupon). The YTM at time t of a discount bond with maturity T is the constant and continuously compounded rate of rate of return at which the price of the bond accrues from time t to time T and pays one currency unit to the holder at time T. The YTM is also referred to as the spot rate and the notation R (t, T) is used for it. Spot rates are short term interest rates and the term structure of interest rates depicts the relationship between spot rates and their dates of maturity (Gibson, Lhabitant and Talay, 2010). Interest rates are not only used in discounting and pricing for zero-coupon bonds but also other financial derivatives because their prices are sensitive to interest rates. If we go beyond the scope of an individual investor, we can see that interest rates are also important to corporations. This is because when corporations are doing project appraisals, they use interest rate for computing the net present value and the discounted payback period for a project. The cost of capital which is of prime importance to corporations also depends upon interest rates (Benninga and Wiener, 1998). It will be useful to specify the type of interest rate before discussing investment decisions and discounting. There are two main types of interest rates: simple interest rate and compound interest rate. Simple rate of interest is interest on a lump sum principal amount and it does not itself earn interest. Quite contrary to this, is the compound rate of interest which itself earns interest. Investment decisions and discounting are all predominantly based on compound interest rates (Kelly and Tracy, 2010) Long term interest rates are an average of short term interest rates. The relationship between short and long term interest rates involves expectations. For example, if it is expected that short term interest rates will fall then the long term interest rates will fall below the current short term rate. The contrary situation is also valid: if it is expected that short term interest rates will increase then the long term interest rates will rise above the current short term rate. These two situations are possible only because long term rates are derived from short term rates. It is a general perception that long rates are greater than short rates and this is termed as the ‘
Introduction Interest rate is the cost of borrowing money. The term structure of interest rates defines the relationship between short and long term rates and the yield curve depicts this relationship graphically. Knowledge of interest rates is important to both, lenders and borrowers…
Prices of the products and the services have immense importance in our life. The term market price can be defined as the price of the products or the services that are prevailing in the market. In any organization, the market price is of great importance and the financial manager has the responsibility to observe carefully the price related scenario and make decisions based on them with the aim that it creates benefits in favor of the organization.
Interest rate in Japan has been low over the past decade with indication that it will remain low. This paper reports on the effects of the low interest on the Japanese banking sector through discussing advantages and disadvantages of the low rates on banks.
Secondly, lending money is the most risky business because the future is never certain and continuously evolves and hence no one can see the future it is imperative that lenders get compensated for this uncertainty in the form of interest on the money that they are lending.
if the price of the bond is greater than its par value, than it is said to be offered at a premium. This is because the rates of return being offered by these bonds are greater than the market rates of return; therefore, they are more valuable assets and hence are offered at a premium.
Such a fixed rate of return was received by the creditor after a year. At the time of introduction of coins, money in the early stages of history was loaned at a fixed rate of interest. We, however, discover one distinctive feature that the interest was abhorred in early stages to present day, and was considered as curse for the growth of economic activities in the underdeveloped countries.
This paper focuses on this model and how it could cost a country billions of money.
We focus on the loss incurred by British government in September 1992. During this day the model mislead the decision of the UK government at the time and led to huge loses.
To accommodate the need for foreign-currency denominated transactions, international monetary systems have continued to evolve and in the process have provided opportunities for meeting these growing demands. Increasingly, international trade is affected by monetary policies
The outline looks at this theory and how it does apply to the market.
ii. It assumes a comparatively small number of long-term investors. This is to offer premiums to encourage the number of long-term investors ( Gibson, Rajna,
A bond is a debt instrument issued by companies or government bodies to borrow money for a fixed period of time. The interest rate, called the coupon rate is fixed close to the prevailing interest rates. Some bonds may offer variable coupon rates. Bonds issued by government bodies and financially strong companies would have lower coupon rates.
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