The report also defines logically certain terms like variable costs, fixed costs, CVP and breakeven analysis as the key concepts. It goes ahead to prove the rational and marginal costing concepts as used in short term decision making. Being a costing technique, several assumptions such as division of cost element into fixed costs and variable costs, variable cost being considered directly proportional to the production volume, fixed costs being constant throughout the production levels and is being shared according to the volume of production per unit, cost is only influenced by the volume output, and at all levels, the selling price would remain unchanged, are associated with it. The report analysis gives logical evidences in manufacturing, hospitality and airline industries, as where the technique is used. Through appraisal and evaluation, it has been found to be the basis for product and service costing; hence, it is critical to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Maher, Lanen & Rehan, 2005). A recommendation has been made in this report for the marginal costing to be used in the three industries for a short term after its comparison with other alternative methods. Reconciliation of absorption and marginal costing methods has been recommended in order to cater for both short term and long term decisions. In summary, every firm is advised to use a costing method which is relevant to the firm’s decision.
Variable costing is a managerial accounting concept, which according to Managerial Accounting by Ray H. Garrison, Eric W. Noreen, and Peter C. Brewer, is a costing method which has only a variable cost in the unit product cost. From its definition, Variable costs are the costs that vary with corresponding changes in the level of production. Thus, we can say variable costs are directly proportional to the volume of production. The technique is majorly for short term decision making instances rather