decentralised teams 26 2.6.3 Performance measurement 26 2.7 Changes in the Organisation with the adaptation of Beyond Budgeting 28 2.8. Summary 32 3.0. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 33 3.1 Introduction 33 3.2 Research Overview 33 3.3 Research Philosophy 34 3.4 Research Approach 34 3.5 Research Methods 35 3.6 Research Strategy 36 3.7 Research Design 36 3.8 Data Collection Method 37 3.9 Data Collection Method 37 3.10 Analysis Method 37 3.10 Reliability of Research 38 3.11 Limitations 38 3.12 Summary 39 4.0 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 40 4.1 Introduction 40 4.2 Case Analysis 40 4.2.1 American Express 40 4.2.2 Case Analysis of Aldi 44 4.2.3 Case Analysis of UBS Wealth Management and Business Banking 45 4.2.4 Case Analysis of Guardian Industries Corporation 46 4.2.5 Case Analysis of SpareBank 1 54 4.3 Summary 61 5.0 DISCUSSION 62 6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 68 6.1 Conclusion 68 6.2 Recommendations: 72 7. List of References 73 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Budgeting is one of the most important tools for managers and it has been regarded as the cornerstone of the management accounting system by Hasnen, Otley, and Stede (2003). Budgeting is a tool that is used by mangers as a blueprint for their future actions. Budgeting is used by organisations to analyse how the firm is performing and how it is expected to perform in the time to come. In some organisations, this tool is also known as the annual planning process. Budgeting has been one of the most commonly used methods by managers and it has been used in different parts of the world. However, with the passage of time there have been several discrepancies and inconsistencies found in the budgeting process and traditional methods used by managers for budgeting and this has raised questions regarding the reliability and effectiveness of budgeting process (Ostergren and Stensaker, 2011). One of the major purposes of budgeting is that it allows the company to analyse how it is able to achieve and meet its objectives. With proper and effective use of budgeting techniques, an organisation is able to improve its profits and reduce its unnecessary expenses. There can be different purposes for using budgeting and some of the most important purposes of using budgeting techniques include: forecasting financial statements, controlling costs and expenses, managing and predicting cash flows, resource planning, communication plans etc (Becker, Messner, and Schaffer, 2010). Organisations may use budgeting for more than one of these above reasons and it is up to the management how they adopt these techniques as there have been several firms that have adapted and have achieved benefits of using these techniques. Besides the advantages and benefits that budgeting techniques offer, these techniques have several limitations that limit and reduce the importance of such techniques. Organisations have been planning to improve these techniques and therefore there has been sufficient research on this topic (Linder and Weber, 2005). Budgeting techniques are not only used for one department or one product that the company is offering. With the use of budgeting technique an organisation is able to identify the cash inflows and outflows from different departments or products that the company offers. By using these data, the management can be able to better analyse the situation and take decisions accordingly. Therefore it has been used by management as a planning tool for years (Drury, 2008). 1.2 Background The traditional budgeting approach is a combination top down and bottom up
Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 3 1.1 Overview 3 1.2 Background 4 1.3 Significance of the Research Study 9 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Research Study 10 1.5 Summary 10 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 11 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Budgeting and its imperatives 11 2.3…
The study is descriptive in nature and would be based on case studies. Data would be collected partly from legit documentations and partly from observations. The study is expected to take a total of about four months, following proposal’s approval.
This dissertation aims at dissecting the pertinent topic on the ethical way in procurement of organs. Organ procurement has been a consummately chief practice in the medical industry since it profoundly aids in saving lives of numerous scores of people who have defective organs that are vital for survival.
The dissertation succinctly expounds on the key aspects of the entire study about the ethics in organ procurement to be taken into consideration for the purpose of preparation of the actual study in the subsequent chapters. This paper mainly describes the main topic for the reader to comprehend and understand since the next chapters will get into deeper details of the study about the ethics in organ procurement.
In 1975, James Albus created the Cerebellum Model Articulation Controller (CMAC), a functional code based upon biological theory (Albus, 1975). This study is an examination of the Cerebellum Model Articulation Controller model; in particular reference to semi on line Q-learning and re-enforcement learning use in robot control.
The variables in this study are effective Human Resource Management and standardized Performance Management. It contends that human resource would excellently contribute to the goals of the company using theories of motivation, transformative leadership and tools for strategized corporate plans and decisions.
Although there is an obvious shift from the use of zero-based budgeting to activity-based budgeting throughout the local businesses in the United Kingdom, zero-based budgeting method is still considered as one of the best budgeting tools in budgeting. Although the use of zero-based budgeting can be very costly and time-consuming, the primary benefit derived from the use of zero-based budgeting is that the use of this method can provide the organisational leaders with a systematic method of evaluating the non-production activities of an organisation.
However, recently the type of media known as “Social Media” has been in discussions and concerns more than any other form of media, including TV, radio and print media. This study investigates the influence of social media on changing the outlook of the overall music industry and the trends of consumption of audio and visual media in the current time.
This study also found that organizations in states where gender equality have a long and sustained history of advocating for equal treatment of women in the workplace have a greater tendency to treat women differently than they treat men. On the other hand, organizations in countries where gender equality has no history or a short history are more likely to practice gender equality.
The research study is described as a process rather than an event to mean that in order for the researcher to successfully achieve the research aim that is set for the study, there are series of tasks that must be performed. There could not be a singular activity that could make the researcher achieve the research aim (Adams and Lamptey, 2009).
According to a neoclassical microeconomic perspective, there should be a solution to this dilemma as the Adam Smith’s invisible hand in the market would level things up. According to evolutionary one, the market agents are not so rational as we would expect. Bounded rationality plays a strong influence in the interacting game of all of the market’s agents.
40 pages (10000 words)Dissertation
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