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Earnings Management: The Continuum from Legitimacy to Fraud - Research Paper Example

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Earnings Management: The Continuum from Legitimacy to Fraud

The main Research methods include quantitative, mixed methods, and qualitative approaches methods. The criteria of choosing a research method depend on the decisions on questions to be answered and data type required (Stangor, 2011). A research considers various aspects like the person who will collect data, place of data collection and data the researcher seeks to collect. Other factors considered in the selection criteria are; methodology to be used and data analysis type. The method of research selected should answer the questions and be in line with the methodology (Cozby, 2009). Quantitative research involves deductive and pivots in a hypothesis that is recognized prior to the research. Qualitative research involves inductive and needs no hypothesis formulation for the research. A mixed research method comprises the use of both quantitative and qualitative method (Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & Griffin, 2010). Quantitative Research Method This research considers a general case then moves towards a specific case. This method considers a probable cause of a problem and anticipates validating its effect. The cause and effect factor depends on the strength of variables relationship. If the variables are strongly related, the relationship of cause and effect becomes highly probable (Cozby, 2009). An example of this method is a research to evaluate the differences in use of websites carts of shopping and online consumer purchasing behavior. General Cause The general cause involves the purchasing habit of internet customers who put commodities in the shopping carts that are online. However, these shoppers do not complete several purchases. Analysing this behavior varies from the purchasing habit of online shoppers who never use shopping carts to hold commodities they never purchase. Specific Effect The specific effect comprises of internet shoppers who routinely put commodities in their online shopping carts but do not accomplish the purchase, and are 75% more probable to revisit the same websites late complete the purchase within a week. Research Finding Holding the contents in the internet-shopping cart for 10 days when a shopper goes offline, prior to finishing a purchase, is favorable business and implies a high possibility of potential purchases by that customer on the same website. Hypothesis This is a guess in a statement or a query form, which a research attempts to answer. A quantitative research has two-hypotheses. Null hypothesis (Ho) is where a researcher does not anticipate the guess to be true. In the end of the research, the researcher will scrutinize the data collected in order to either acknowledge or reject the negative hypothesis. Testing a hypothesis is the confirmation of the assumption or the hypothesis. In the alternative hypothesis, (Ha), a researcher supposes the guess is true. When a researcher rejects the null hypothesis, it implies that the alternative hypothesis might be accepted. This means likelihood that the data error that would make the Ha not true is reasonably minute by scientific standards. There is no absolute hypothesis testing in any quantitative research (Stangor, 2011). From the example, on the online study: Ho = Online buyer who puts commodities in the cart prior to leaving the website is more probable to revisit and complete a transaction than online buyers who do not put commodities in their cart, but also return to the website. Ha = an online buyer who leaves a business website prior to purchasing items ...Show more

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Earnings Management: The Continuum From Legitimacy To Fraud David Onyekwena Student, North Central University Introduction RSH9102B research course provides the Learner with the skills essential to employ mixed research quantitative and qualitative approaches to a formal inquiry…
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