Joining WTO posed a vital influence on the political as well as economic reforms of China which were learnt to be influencing the telecom sector as well. Xiaolingtong is a mobile network which was developed in the year 1999, before China joined WTO and was controlled by the Ministry of Information Industry (MII) which was considered to be the backbone of the fixed line service providers. Later on, significant developments were made with regard to Xiaolingtong which assisted in capturing a significant share in the foreign market. The government provided full support towards the development of Xiaolingtong but those developments were not regarded as vital in comparison to the mobile or cellular service providers. There were also few issues which existed in relation to the adoption or implementation of the 3G service in China’s telecommunication services which required the involvement of different services and technologies. Discussion Key Issues or Options or Alternatives There are few issues which are known to prevail or subsist in the telecommunication system of China and these issues are believed to be preventing the overall development of the system. The telecom market in China was characterized with arbitrary pricing as well as promotion policies. The main focus was to gain a significant market share instead of increasing its market size by providing new and valued services. The telecom market or the sector was observed to provide increased focus on deploying various services without being much concerned regarding the underlying quality with respect to the value added services for creating differentiation or competitive advantage for their products in the international market. There was an existence of high regulatory framework which created uncertainty as well as risk for the 3G mobile services. China’s telecom policies lacked a proper implementation of the relevant laws as well as regulations. It was found in this respect that MII played a major role in regulating the policies for the telecom system in China as the policies were not considered to be transparent which led to uncertainties. It was identified that to develop an efficient as well as effective competition in the telecom market, the existence of an ‘Independent Telecom Regulatory Authority’ was highly required. When China joined WTO, it should have then established an ‘Independent Telecom Regulatory Authority’ for the purpose of developing its telecom industry, but failed to do as MII used to formulate plans and policies as along with managing the telecom service providers (International Trade Administration, 2010). The telecom industry of China needed to conduct its business in partnership with some other international telecom services to compete in the international market. The firms formed out of Chinese partnerships with the foreign associates usually remained stated owned and lacked adequate experience in terms of competing in the international market. The telecom equipment requires qualifying through various certifications as well as testing prior to their implementation and installation. A certain degree of limitation is imposed in China with regard to the aspect of foreign investment which restricts foreign companies to exercise control over the management of the Chinese telecom industry. A WTO obligation
Perspectives on International Trade and Finance Introduction China was amongst the few countries to possess one of the most primary telecommunication services in the world. The telecommunication market in China is known to have a large number of subscribers availing the services and this particular industry or market is also measured to be the ultimate revenue developer for the country…
Still if the government plans to impose tariffs over the imported goods, the result would be that other countries will do the same. End result would be increased unemployment in the export competing industries and decreased unemployment in import competing industries.
According to Miller (2003), the study of this particular phenomenon concerning the Anti-Sweatshop Movement of the 1990s, rendered the then economists with the opportunity to obtain an apparent understanding of the working conditions and its potential impacts on the economic development processes.
The country of Germany commands for a relatively large share of mechanical machineries production among the European Union. The production of this type of goods is mainly concentrated in North-Rhine-Westphalia. The production of large machineries and heavy industries is concentrated in this part of the world.
Though after the entry to the World Trade Organization, China had exposed itself to large scale foreign transactions; it has not yet created trade standards akin to the developed countries. As a result the manufactures located in China often have an unfair advantage owing to China’s non-enforcement of strict standards and its manipulation of its currency.
In this regard, a continuous growth and rapid transformation of the business strategies practiced by the modern business organisations can be observed apparently with respect to their global trade operations. Contextually, the rapid development of modern trade operations among the various global industries has also inspired the organisations to be significantly focused on acquiring a continuously increasing market share and thereby attaining greater competitive advantages (OECD, 2008).
“Nike Inc. is an international company based in the United States of America that deals with importing and exporting sportswear and equipment” (Smith, 2002). It is the chief manufacturer of sports attire and equipment in the world. Nike Inc. imports footwear from outside countries.
Some key facts about Turkish Gold Production are:
The journey of Turkish Gold Industry has seen many ups and downs. It saw its first upsurge in demand when liberalization of gold imports took place in Turkey in 1980.