Operating under such a business scenario is too risky for any business. This is because, regardless of how much sales a business makes, and regardless of how much a business tries to minimize its costs and expenditures, it will always find itself on the receiving end, where its performance is not dependent on its efficiency or effectiveness but rather on the behavior of the foreign exchange markets (Sarno & Taylor, 2005, p. 83). XJP receives virtually all its supplies directly from J&J Ltd, which, in turn, invoices all the costs and expenditures in Euros. On the contrary, XJP makes its sales in Chinese Renminbi. Therefore, it has to convert the income made from the sales from the Chinese currency into the Euros so that it can submit its payment to J&J Ltd. This means that the amount XJP pays to J&J is not solely dependent on the value of the supplies it receives from this company, but also on the rate at which the Chinese currency exchanges for the Euro. ...Show more
The trends for the foreign exchange indicate that XJP lost 60 million Renminbi in 2003 and other 70 million in 2004 (Moffett, Stonehill & Eiteman, 2008, p. 253). Foreign exchange gains and losses have a significant impact for XJP’s corporate performance, since it fully depends on how the foreign currencies behave towards each other to make its profits or suffer losses…
From the period of 2004 to March 3, 2012, Yuan appreciated by more than 23% and fluctuated between 8.2800 to 6.3039. The following graph shows us that condition of Yuan between 2004 and 2012. Figure 1: China’s exchange rate appreciation and Dollar’s Depreciation Source: Google Finance, 2012 The fluctuation can be divided into the following important periods: Figure 2: Important USD/CNY Fluctuation Date Source: Google Finance, 2012 China follows the policy of managed exchange rates.
Based on Haynes and Stone (1981), this assumption could lead to uncertainties and problems.
Univariate Time Series Models - Long AR (Auto regression), Schwartz (1978) order selection criterion, Akaike (1974) procedure, Wiener-Kolmogorov prediction formula in the frequency domain, Random Walk model.(1.
Another essential element that can be an indicator of a country's economic health is their exchange rates. Exchange rates compare the currency of one country to that of another. There are many ways in which the exchange rates can affect an economy. Understanding how exchange rates and balance of payments are linked is important to understanding how a country's economy interacts with that of other countries around the world.
In 1971 the US floated its currency and as a result the devaluation of the dollar would affect the exchange of the Brazilian currency with other major currencies, during this period the Brazilian policy makers believed that the balance of payment was best managed by import control and export incentives, trade flow was in this period controlled by tariffs, subsidies and the direct control on trade.
This paper focuses on this model and how it could cost a country billions of money.
We focus on the loss incurred by British government in September 1992. During this day the model mislead the decision of the UK government at the time and led to huge loses.
For this purpose, a range of data was utilised from books, journal articles and the Internet resources. The paper presents an insightful study on the impact of various factors on exchange rates such as monetary policy, inflation, imports and exports, government spending, economic productivity and foreign reserve etc by utilising the research and studies conducted by different scholars [(Krueger, 1983), (Rodriguez, 1977), (Diulio, 1998), (Stockman, 1980) etc].
ver, in a fixed rate administration, one of the two nations, with the agreement of the other, situates the exchange rate and allows its money distribution to adjust to suit to the level needed (Barro, 2008). Furthermore, in flexible exchange rate administration, the government
The importance of flexibility in the exchange rate for easier correction of imbalances current account has long been at the heart of international debate. Before the financial crisis World, these debates were focused on global imbalances and the role of exchange rate policies several major Asian and oil-exporting countries with external surpluses.
16 pages (3750 words)Essay
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