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# Financial Analysis - Coursework Example

## Extract of sampleFinancial Analysis

They also state that the market value is not determined by the dividend policy. In relation to the irrelevance of dividends, two theorems are applied; these are Modigliani-Miller approach and residual theory (Thompson & Mathew 82). Q2. The major assumption behind the residual income valuation model is the clean surplus relationship, that stresses the relationship among book value per share, dividends and earnings: BV1 = BV0 + EPS1 - D1. It means that all the accounting profits and distribution to shareholders can be explained by changes in the book value. Another assumption is that the ohslon model comes from the information dynamics that brings together current information to future residual income. Consistent with Ohlson’s information dynamics it is found out that residual empirical research income follows a mean reverting process. In conclusion Ohlson’s formulation of the residual income valuation model provides an economical structure for incorporating information in earnings, book value and income forecasts. The fact that there are no taxes or difference in tax rates is another major assumption made. The book value of equity uses the clean surplus approach that states earnings and net dividends modify book equity. The future residual income is overcome by the use of the equation below V0 = B0 + ?(RIt / (1 + r)t) = B0 + ? ((Et - r x Bt-1) / (1 + r)t) where V0 - value of a company's stock. B0 - present book value per share. Bt - book value per share at the end of period t. r - cost of equity. Et - future EPS for period t. RIt - residual income per share for period t. Q3. Francis and Schipper realized that in recent times, the value relevance of accounting information has been under constant scrutiny by the stock market researchers and set out to test it. Another test that they made use of is that of investigating the relationship between a set of independent accounting variables and security price dependent variable. In order, to extend their tests to account for change in relevance over time, they made use of linear regression, which was an estimation technique that determined the value relevance of accounting data. Q4. The property of timeliness is an important role in accrual accounting since it aligns the expense recognition and timing of revenue. Accountants produce an earnings variable by adding accruals to operating cash. Conservatism is defined as the asymmetry between loss and gain recognition. Loss accruals are important in that they allow management compensation; determine earnings quality and improving the usefulness of financial statements generally. Journal of Accounting and Economics clearly outlines the effects of international institutional features on the accounting income properties as follows. The international differences in demand for accounting directly affect change in market value over time. Asymmetry by public disclosure is characterized by the stakeholders and shareholders governance models of common and code law countries. Litigation, regulation and taxation cause variations within the common Law countries. The value strategies include low price to book ratio, buying low stocks and low price to cash flow ratio stocks. The major finding of these strategies is that it is a successful investment strategy in that the value stocks outperform the whole market and growth stocks. Q5. Lakonishok, Shleifer and ...Show more

## Summary

Name: Course: Professor: Date: Q1. The Modigliani and Miller paper mentions that a firm’s value is never affected by how it is financed, may it be through bankruptcy, absence of taxes or agency costs. This Modigliani-Miller theorem is also known as the principle of capital structure irrelevance…
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