The ideal ratio is 2:1. Inventory turnover ratio = cost of goods sold/ average inventory. It will be compared between firms to check the efficiency in inventory management. High inventory turnover ratio indicates sound inventory management. Return on capital employed = (profit before interest and tax/average capital employed)*100. It will be compared to check how much return the firms are earning in respect of the gross resources been deployed in the firm (Bull, 2007). 2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of debt financing and why an organization would choose to issue stocks rather than bonds to generate funds. Ans. The primary advantage of debt financing is its allowing the founders to retain control and ownership of company. In contrast to equity financing, it enables the entrepreneurs to make key strategic decisions and to reinvest and keep more company profits. It also provides small business owners the greater degree of financial freedom than equity financing. Debt obligations are limited to the period of loan repayment after which no further claim can be made by the lender on the business. The main disadvantage of debt financing is its requiring the small business to make monthly payments of interest and principal regularly. Most lenders provide severe penalties for missed or late payments including charging of late fees, calling early the due loans and collateral possession. Failure to pay on loan can affect adversely the credit rating of small business and its ability of obtaining future financing. Also it will be difficult to obtain loans for unproven businesses since lenders seek security for their funds (Creamer, et al., 1960). An advantage of stock over bond are-One of the major advantage of stock is its unlimited potential. There is no ceiling on investment in buying stocks. The stock price can double, triple or may get multiplied. Stocks tend to have better performance over bonds in case of long term investment. Money may be lost in some years for wide fluctuation in stock market but it will give better return to investors in long term. Trading with stocks facilitate transaction. 3. Discuss how financial returns are related to risk. Ans. Gain or loss from investment is derived from the relation between financial risk and return. If an investor invests in securities having low risk then it will have a small return. If the risk factor associated with security is high then investor could have the potential to earn high returns. The balance between highest possible return and lowest possible risk is given by the risk/return trade-off. A standard deviation indicates higher risk with higher possible return. 4. Describe the concept of beta and how it is used. Ans. Beta can be defined as the measure of volatility or systematic risk of portfolio or security as compared to market as a whole. It is the tendency of return on a security in respond to market swings. Beta is used in capital asset pricing model (CAPM) which calculates expected return of an asset on the basis of its beta value and expected market returns using regression analysis. Beta is otherwise known as beta coefficient. Beta equals to one indicates movement of security’s price with market movement. Beta less than one indicate security will be less volatile
For a small business owner, the following ratios are important to him and he will compare these ratios with that of ratios of larger corporation in the following manner-Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities. …
Hence without understanding the different concepts of financing and their results, it would become difficult to realize and come to proper financial decisions. The present study focuses on the understanding of different concepts of finance that a small business owner would require in his/her decisions and include topics like NPV, debt financing, risk-return relationships, concept of beta, and systematic and unsystematic risk.
As a small business an important ratio category to consider is the liquidity of the business. A company that is liquid has sufficient cash to pay for all the expenses of the firm during a period. The current ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities.
Financial ratios are tools used in large, medium and small size businesses to evaluate their financial performance and progress by looking on their income statements, as well as statement of financial position in comparing current and previous performance (New South Wales Government, 2012).The most common financial ratios used by small business include: solvency ratios, profitability ratios and liquidity ratios to name just but a few.
As compared to concepts like time value of the money, present and future value, inflation and other financing factors the NPV method is more suitable for making good financial decisions since the payback method does not take those aspects into account.
Discounted cash flows minus the investment cost are equivalent to the NPV. It is worth noting that when NPV is equal to zero the project has enough cash to pay its debts and equity, which was invested in the project. On the other hand, if the NPV is positive, it
Some of its objectives include making maximum profits while offering quality products and services to its consumers. Due to the stiff competition in the market, the company was forced to offer cheap products at relatively
One major reason for employee training is the rapid changes in the work environment that limits performance within the organization. Each day, the working conditions change and the employees have to adjust to these changes if they have to
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