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On the contrary, Sharpe ratio refers to a measure of risk adjustment measure that utilizes standard deviation when computing portfolio returns and inherent risk associated with a particular portfolio (Ctaff, 2012). Empirical research asserts that if Sharpe ratio is higher it implies returns are better. Therefore, by utilizing standard deviation, Sharp ratio assumes that the relevant risk is total risk unlike Treynor ratio which assumes that the relevant risk is systematic (Ctaff, 2012). Both Treyon and Sharpe ratios are similar; however, the two measures differ in terms of how they determine of risk volatility. Whereby, Treyon ration utilizes beta while Sharp ratio tend to utilize standard deviation (Anric, 2013). Information ratio measures the ability of corporate managers to utilize skills/ luck to generate excess returns beyond the established benchmark. This ratio utilizes alpha elements as well as standard deviation to measure volatilities associated with a particular portfolio (Reilly and Brown, 2012). Therefore, information ratio assumes that the relevant risk is total where both systematic and unsystematic risks are combined (Harkins, 2012). Jensen alpha refers to a measure of portfolio returns predicted using capital asset pricing model. In addition, Jensen’s alpha assumes that relevant risk is systematic (Bacon, 2013). On the other hand, Sortino ratio refers to a ratio that helps to determine the difference between good and bad risk in sharp ratio. This ratio tends to be similar with Sharp ratio. However, it utilizes downward deviation making it slight different from sharp ratio. This ratio measures return that can be derived during volatility whereby, standard deviation may be utilized. Therefore, Sortino ratio assumes that relevant risk it total (Feibel and Vincent, 2011). 2. Discuss whether the present value of cash flow approach and the relative valuation approach to security valuation can be considered to be competitive or complementary. The present value approach may utilize discount rate to discount cash flows generated by a particular project to determine their value. Additionally, the present value approach may be utilized in making valuations of different assets such as shares, real estate properties and even bonds (Feibel & Vincent, 2011). Whereby, a negative net present value indicates that a project may not be profitable. In addition, a positive net present value implies that a project may be profitable and therefore, such project should not be undertaken because it will expose the company at a greater risk. On the other hand, relative valuation approach focuses at valuing company stocks with those of company own historical method of valuation. In addition, relative valuation tends to compare company’s stocks with the market value of other similar assets to determine whether they can be suitable for investments (Feibel and Vincent, 2011). This means that similar stocks of a particular company should be compared with those stocks of companies operating in the same market. However, relative valuation approaches have some limitations. For example, all companies may not utilize the same corporate strategies and hence, great discrepancies may exist between companies (Feibel and Vince ...Show more


Investment and portfolio analysis Tutor Date: 1. The five different measures of risk adjusted Portfolio Performance; the and how each of these measures defines the risk that investors face. The five of the different measures of risk adjusted portfolio performance include; Treynor ratio, Sharpe ratio, Information ratio, Jensen alpha and Sortino ratio…
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Investment and portfolio analysis
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